(1473-1543) Polish astronomer who published his workable model of a sun-centered solar system called the heliocentric theory in his 1543 book called "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies".
(1514-1564) In 1543 this Flemish surgeon who was considered the father of modern anatomy published "The Fabric of the Human Body" which contained empirical evidence that he had gained through dissections and drawings to generate many new, more precise ideas about the human.
(1546-1601) Danish astronomy who observed and cataloged astronomical data for his entire life. His data was used Johannes Kepler who published his data in a book called Tabulae Rudolphina in 1627.
(1571-1630) German astronomer who proved that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit, wrote the three laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships, and accurately predicted movements of the planets in a sun-centered universe.
(1578-1657) English physician who, in his 1628 work "On the Motion of the Heart and Blood", provided a systematic, detailed description of the human circulatory system, stating that the heart acted as a pump that propelled blood through the body.
(1627-1691) In his 1661 publication, The Sceptical Chymist, this Irish chemist known as the father of chemistry established that air has weight, defined chemical elements and chemical reactions, and applied the scientific method to chemistry.
(1635-1703) English experimental philosopher whose published work, "Micrographia", records his observations of cells. He first observed small chambers in a piece ofcork which he thought looked like a monastery's cells and so named these chambers 'cella' in 1665.
Otto von Guericke
(1602-1686) German scientist who through his work with vacuums and his invention of the air pump in 1650 proved Galileo's Theory of Falling Bodies.
(1629-1695) Dutch physicist who first formulated the wave theory of light, discovered one of Saturn's moons (Titan), and created the first pendulum clock.
(1623-1662) French philospher, scientist, and mathematician who believed that a "leap of faith" was required for men to believe in God, promoted the idea that scientific hypothesis are characterized by their falsifiability in his Provincial Letters, and invented the calculator.
(1561-1626) English politician and writer, who published his book, "Novum Organum" (New Method) in 1620, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw a conclusion from a general point) called empiricism.