Jacob S. (1854-1951): A wealthy Ohio Populist who led a 500-strong "army" to Washington, D.C. in 1894 to demand a public works program to create jobs for the unemployed in the midst of a devastating four-year depression.
Marcus Alonzo (1837-1904): The driving force behind McKinley's rise to the presidency, ____ was a former businessman who raised money and devised strategy for McKinley's winning bid for the White House in 1896.
William (1843-1901): A former Republican congressman from Ohio who won the presidency in 1896 and again in 1900. He was pro-business, conservative, and unwilling to trouble the waters by voicing unpopular opinions.
Frederick Jackson (1861-1932): Author of the famous "frontier thesis," in which ___ argued that the taming of the West had shaped the nation's character. The experience of molding wilderness into civilization, he argued, encouraged Americans' characteristic embrace of individualism and democracy. Although ___ is now criticized for, among other things, entirely ignoring the role of Native Americans in the West, his argument remains a keystone of thought about the West in American history.
Emilio (1869-1964): Well-educated Filipino leader who first fought against Spain and later led the Philippine insurgency against United States colonial rule.
James G. (1830-1893): American statesman who served in the House thirteen years (1863-1876), followed by a little over four years in the Senate (1876-1881). He served as Speaker of the House from 1869 to 1875. As secretary of state under James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur, ____ advocated a "Big Sister" policy of United States domination in Latin America.
Dupuy (1851-1904): The Spanish minister to the United States who found himself at the center of a scandal when his private letter maligning President McKinley was made public in 1898.
George (1837-1917): Commander of the American Asiatic Squadron who boldly captured Manila Bay and the Philippines at the launch of the Spanish American War. His actions ultimately led to fierce debates about the propriety of American imperialism.
Dwight D. ("Ike") (1890-1969): Supreme Commander of U.S. Forces in Europe during World War II, ____ the war hero later became the thirty-fourth president of the United States. During his two terms, from 1952 to 1960,_____ presided over the economically prosperous 1950s. He was praised for his dignity and decency, though criticized for not being more assertive on civil rights.
John (1838-1905): Named U.S. ambassador to England in 1897, when William McKinley became president. ____ later served as McKinley's secretary of state. He was author of the Open Door Notes, which called for free economic competition in China.
(1838-1917): The last reigning queen of Hawaiin whose defense of native Hawaiian self-rule led to a revolt by white settlers and to her dethronement.
Alfred Thayer (1840-1914): American naval officer and author whose book of 1890, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783, impressed a generation of imperialists around the world with its argument that control of the sea was the key to world dominance.
Richard (1835-1917): The pugnacious successor to James G. Blaine as secretary of state, serving from 1895 to 1897, Olney stirred up conflict with Great Britain during the Venezuelan Crisis of 1895-1896. He also insisted on the protection of American lives and property and on reparations for losses incurred during violent disturbances in Cuba, China, and Turkey.
Theodore ("Teddy") (1858-1919): Rough Rider "Teddy" ____ was a cowboy-hero of the Cuban campaign who rode his popularity into the governorship of New York state and then into the vice-president's office. He became president when McKinley was assassinated in 1901. He won reelection as a Republican in 1904 and then lost to Democrat Woodrow Wilson in 1912, when he tried for another term as the Progressive Party candidate.
Josiah (1847-1916): Protestant clergyman and author of Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis (1885). He touted the superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization and helped summon Americans to spread their religion abroad.
William H. (1857-1930): The corpulent civil governor of the Philippines under William McKinley. ____ went on to become twenty-seventh president of the United States in 1909.
"Butcher" (1838-1930): Valeriano "Butcher" ____ was a Spanish general who arrived in Cuba in 1896 to put down the insurrection. He became notorious for herding many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps.
Hiram W. Johnson
(1866-1945): Elected Republican governor of California in 1910, ____ oversaw numerous progressive reforms, including the passage of woman suffrage at the state level. In 1917 he entered the Senate, where he proved an isolationist in foreign affairs. He is famous for declaring that "the first casualty when war comes, is truth."
(1859-1932): A tireless crusader for women's and labor rights, ___ was Illinois's first chief factory inspector and a leader of the National Consumer's League, an organization dedicated to improving working conditions for women and children. ____ also went on to help found the NAACP.
Robert M. La Follette
("Fighting Bob") (1855-1925): Hailing from Wisconsin, _____ was one of the most militant of the progressive Republican leaders. He served in the Senate and in the Wisconsin governor's seat, and was a perennial contender for the presidency, keeping the spirit of progressivism alive into the 1920s.
Henry Demarest Lloyd
(1847-1903): A muckraking journalist and reform leader whose book, Wealth Against Commonwealth (1894), excoriated the sins of the Standard Oil Company. ____ became one of the leading intellectuals behind the progressive movement, influencing such figures as Clarence Darrow, Florence Kelley, and John Dewey.
(1838-1914): This noted naturalist split with conservationists like Gifford Pinchot by trying to protect natural "temples" like the Hetch Hetchy Valley from development. In 1892 he founded the Sierra Club, which is now one of the most influential conservation organizations in the United States. His writings and philosophy shaped the formation of the modern environmental movement.
(1865-1946): A friend of Theodore Roosevelt, ____ was the head of the federal Division of Forestry and a noted conservationist who wanted to protect, but also use, the nation's natural resources, like forests and rivers. In 1922 he won election to the Pennsylvania governor's mansion, on the Republican ticket.
Jacob A. Riis
(1849-1914): Danish-born police reporter and pioneering photographer who exposed the ills of tenement living in his 1890 book illustrated with powerful photographs, How the Other Half Lives. His work led to the establishment of "model tenements" in New York City.
(1857-1929): An eccentric Norwegian-American economist who savagely attacked "predatory wealth" and "conspicuous consumption" in his most important book, The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899).
Frances E. Willard
(1839-1898): This pious leader of the Woman's Chris tian Temperance Union wished to eliminate the sale of alcohol and thereby "make the world more homelike." Her ecumenical "do every thing" reform sensibility encouraged some women to take the leap toward more radical causes like woman suffrage, while allowing more conservative women to stick comfortably with temperance work.
Louis D. Brandeis
(1856-1941): A progressive-minded confidant of Woodrow Wilson, ____ was the litigator behind Muller v. Oregon. In 1916, Wilson made him the first Jewish American to be appointed to the United States Supreme Court.
(1859-1920): A principal rival and presidential successor to Mexican General Victoriano Huerta, Woodrow Wilson favored ____ over Huerta, but ____ resented the U.S. president's meddling in Mexican affairs.
(1869-1930): Political thinker and journalist whose book, The Promise of American Life (1910) influenced the New Nationalist reform platform of Theodore Roosevelt.
(1850-1916): Mexican military officer who declared himself president and installed a dictatorship during the Mexican Revolution. President Wilson's strong opposition to ____ led him to support U.S. military intervention in Mexico in 1914.
Charles Evans Hughes
(1862-1948): United States Supreme Court Justice and unsuccessful Republican candidate for president in 1916 against Woodrow Wilson. He almost won, carrying most of the populous Northeast and Midwest, but Wilson won enough working class and pro-reform votes to squeak through.
John ("Black Jack") Pershing
(1860-1948): American General and veteran of the Cuban and Philippine campaigns who led an unsuccessful mission to capture Pancho Villa in 1917 He went on to lead the American Expeditionary Force in World War I.
Francisco ("Pancho") Villa
(1877-1923): A combination of bandit and Robin Hood,____ emerged as a chief rival to Mexican President Carranza and tried to provoke the United States into war by going on a killing spree north of the border in New Mexico. President Wilson dispatched General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing in an attempt to capture ____, but the expedition ended in defeat for American forces.
launched a series of articles in McClure's entitled The Shame of the Cities, in which he unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and the government.
Ida M. Tarbell
launched a devastating exposé against Standard Oil and its ruthlessness.
Thomas W. Lawson
revealed the corrupt amassing of American fortunes
David G. Phillips
charged that 75 of the 90 U.S. Senators did not represent the people, but actually the railroads and trusts.
Ray Stannard Baker
author of Following the Color Line was about the illiteracy of Blacks.
author of The Bitter Cry of the Children exposed child labor.
Dr. Harvey W. Wiley
exposed the frauds that sold potent patent medicines by experimenting on himself.
(1870-1965): A stock speculator who was appointed to head the War Industries Board under President Wilson, _____ went on to participate in the "Brain Trust" under Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal administration. During World War II, he repeated his service as an economic adviser, advocating price controls and rent ceilings.
(1876-1953): The young, outspoken, and tactless journalist who was tapped to head the Committee on Public Information, also known as the _____ Committee, during World War I.
Eugene V. Debs
(1855-1926): A tireless socialist leader who organized the American Railway Union in the Pullman Strike if 1894, ____ was later convicted under the First World War's Espionage Act in 1918 and sentenced to ten years in a federal penitentiary. A frequent presidential candidate on the Socialist Party ticket, in 1920 he won over 900,000 votes campaigning for president from his prison cell.
David Lloyd George
(1863-1945): Prime Minister of Great Britain during World War I. Along with Woodrow Wilson, Italy's Vittorio Orlando, and France's George Clemenceau, he formed part of the inner clique at the Paris Peace Conference knows as the "Big Four."
William D. Haywood
("Big Bill") (1869-1928): As a leader of the Industrial Workers of the World, the Western Federation of Miners, and the Socialist Party of America, ______ was one of the most feared of American labor radicals. During World War I, he became a special target of anti-leftist legislation.
Herbert C. Hoover
(1874-1964): A Quaker-humanitarian tapped to head the Food Administration during World War I. During the 1920s, he became the Secretary of Commerce, promoting economic modernization and responsible leadership by business to hold off further expansion of government power. Elected to the presidency in 1928 as a Republican, he soon faced the crisis of the Great Depression, which he tried to combat with the same voluntary efforts and restrained government action that had been his hallmark over the previous decade. He lost the election of 1932 to Democrat Franklin Roosevelt, who advocated a more activist role for the federal government.
Henry Cabot Lodge
(1850-1924): A prominent republican senator from Massachusetts, _______ was chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and a persistent thorn in President Wilson's internationalist side when he crusaded against the League of Nations.
(1864-1940): German foreign secretary during World War I and author of the infamous "_____ note," which proposed a German-Mexican alliance against the United States.
Mary McLeod Bethune
(1875-1955): The highest-ranking African- American in the Roosevelt administration, ____ headed up the Office of Minority Affairs and was a leader of the unofficial "Black Cabinet," which sought to apply New Deal benefits to blacks as well as whites.
Father Charles Coughlin
(1891-1979): A Catholic priest from Michigan who goaded 40 million radio listeners with his weekly anti-New Deal harangues. He was a well-known opponent of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal policies.
Harry L. Hopkins
(1890-1946): A former New York social worker, ___ came to be one of the major architects of the New Deal, heading up the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Works Progress Administration, and serving as a personal confidant to President Roosevelt.
Huey P. Long
("Kingfish") (1893-1935): Louisiana governor, later senator, whose anti-New Deal "Share Our Wealth" program promised to make "Every Man a King"-that is, until he was gunned down in 1935.
(1882-1965): The first woman cabinet member and secretary of labor under Roosevelt, ______helped draw labor into the New Deal coalition.
(1884-1962): The wife of Franklin Roosevelt, _____ was the most active First Lady the United States had ever seen, and was known for her devotion to the impoverished and oppressed.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
(1882-1945): The thirty-second president of the United States, ______ was the only American president to be elected to four terms of office. He first won the presidency against Republican incumbent Herbert Hoover in 1932 in the depths of the Great Depression and was credited with having developed a program, called the New Deal, that shepherded the nation out of crisis. When World War II broke out in Europe, he steered the United States into the war, which in the end proved more effective than the New Deal in helping the nation recover from difficult economic times. His gallant struggle against polio and his enormous talents as a politician helped made him a beloved leader for a dozen difficult years in the nation's history.
Francis E. Townsend
(1867-1960): A retired physician who had lost his savings in the Great Depression and promoted a plan, popular with senior citizens, to pay every person over sixty $200 a month, provided that the money was spent within the month. One estimate had the scheme costing one-half of the national income.
Robert F. Wagner
(1877-1953): A Democratic senator from New York State from 1927-1949, ____ was responsible for the passage of some of the most important legislation enacted through the New Deal. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 was popularly known as the _____ Act in honor of the senator. He also played a major role in the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the ____-Steagall Housing Act of 1937.
(1892-1975): Spanish general who became head of state after his fascistic troops prevailed over the republican Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War. He remained head of the Spanish state until his death in 1975.
(1889-1945): Nazi dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945, _____ was the mastermind behind the Holocaust. His rapacious quest for power provoked World War II.
(1871-1955): Secretary of state under President Roosevelt and chief architect of the low-tariff reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers. Foreign trade increased appreciably under all the trade pacts that he negotiated. One of the chief architects behind the United Nations, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for "co-initiating the United Nations."
(1883-1945): Fascist leader of Italy from 1922 to 1943. ______ launched Italy into World War II on the side of Axis Powers and became a close ally of Adolph Hitler.
Wendell L. Wilkie
(1892-1944): Known as the "rich man's Roosevelt," _____ was a novice politician and Republican businessman who lost to Franklin Roosevelt in the 1940 presidential campaign. Although ____ won more votes than any previous GOP candidate, Roosevelt still beat him by a landslide.
A. Mitchell Palmer
A zealous prosecutor and anti-red, he served as Attorney General during the post-World War I "red scare," when thousands of foreign nationals were deported because of suspected subversive activities.
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
Italian anarchists convicted in 1921 of murder. Despite a worldwide public outcry, they were electrocuted in 1927.
Horace Kallen and Randolph Bourne
Two early twentieth-century commentators who wrote against the grain of "one-hundred-per-cent" Americanism, celebrating ethnic diversity and cultural pluralism. Their essays left behind an important legacy for later writers on pluralism and civil rights.
A notorious Chicago bootlegger and gangster during Prohibition, he evaded conviction for murder but served most of an eleven-year sentence for tax evasion.
John T. Scopes
A Tennessee high-school biology teacher who was prosecuted in 1925 for teaching the theory of evolution. Former presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan joined the prosecution. The talented Clarence Darrow served as defense attorney.
Frederick W. Taylor
A prominent inventor and engineer who developed "scientific management," a system of shop floor organization that stressed efficient, highly supervised labor management and production methods. His methods revolutionized manufacturing across the industrialized world.
The "Father of the Traffic Jam," he developed the Model T and pioneered its assembly-line production. As founder of the _____ Motor Company, he became one of the wealthiest men in the world.
Charles A. Lindbergh
An American aviator who made history as the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic. An instant international hero, his reputation was later tarnished by anti-Semitic views he voiced during World War II.
An Austrian physician who led the way in developing the field of psychoanalysis. One of the most influential minds of the twentieth century, he was known for his argument that sexual repression was responsible for a variety of nervous and emotional ills.
Warren G. Harding
He began his career as a newspaper publisher before getting elected to the Ohio Senate, where he served from 1899 to 1903. He then served as lieutenant governor of Ohio (1903-1905) and as a U.S. senator (1915-1921) before winning the presidency. His time in office was beset with scandals, many of them the result of disloyalty of designing friends.
Albert B. Fall
A scheming conservationist who served as secretary of the interior under Warren G. Harding, he was one of the key players in the notorious Teapot Dome scandal.
Vice President "Silent Cal" became the thirtieth president of the United States when Warren G. Harding died in office. A friend of business over labor, he served during the boom years from 1923 to 1929.
John W. Davis
The unsuccessful Democratic candidate for president in 1924. The wealthy, Wall-Street-connected Davis was no less conservative than his opponent, Calvin Coolidge.
Albert E. Smith
Colorful New York governor who was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for president in 1928. His Catholicism and "wet" stance on Prohibition made him a controversial figure, even in the traditionally loyal Democratic South, and he lost the electoral vote to a Hoover landslide.
The flamboyant, vain, and brilliant American commander in the Philippines and mastermind of the "leapfrogging" strategy for bypassing strongly defended Japanese islands during World War II. He would go on to command American troops in the Korean War until he was relieved of his duties by President Harry S Truman for insubordination in 1951.
U.S. Navy admiral who was commander-in-chief of the Pacific Naval Forces for the United States and its allies during World War II. He strategized the important victories in the Battles of Midway and the Coral Sea.
Harry S Truman
Vice president under Franklin Roosevelt in 1945, he assumed the office of the presidency in April of that year, when Roosevelt died from a brain hemorrhage while vacationing in Warm Springs, Georgia. He won another term in his own right in a historically close election in 1948 against Republican Thomas Dewey. As president, he chose to use nuclear weapons against Japan at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
German-born scientist who immigrated to the United States in 1933 to escape the Nazis. He helped to persuade FDR to push ahead with preparations for developing the atomic bomb, but later ruefully declared that "annihilation of any life on earth has been brought within the range of technical possibilities."