Microbiology

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Auburn University Spring 2012 BIOL 3200 -Dr. Barbaree

What is Microbiology?

the study of microscopic organisms

What are the subfields of Microbiology?

Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Protozoology, Immunology, and some of Parasitology

What are anaerobic bacteria?

Bacteria that live in the absence of oxygen

What is a phototroph?

They get their food/energy from light

What are cyanobacteria?

They are photosynthetic bacteria

What is a prokaryote?

Bacteria with no organelles, no nucleus, and 70S ribosomes

What are Eukaryotes?

Higher level cells with mitochondria, nuclear membrane, and 80S ribosomes

Some microbes can tolerate:
A) Flames B) 112 C
C) -80 C D) pH of <1.0 E) All of the above

E) All of the above

What are some examples of the application of Microbiology?

Probiotics, Beer Production, Bioremediation

What is Bioremediation

The use of living organisms to degrade environmental pollutants

When was the first recorded flu epidemic?

400 BC

When did Anthrax kill thousands of Roman soldiers?

125 AD

Who was the theory of Spontaneous Generation disproved by?

Pasteur

The importance in disproving Spontaneous Generation was that it showed contamination of a sterile liquid was prevented by what?

Prevented by microbes entering the flask

John Tyndall showed bacteria can exist in what two forms?

heat labile and heat resistant

What are heat resistant bacteria called?

Endospores

Tyndall also showed that intermittent heating enabled what?

Sterilization

What did Robert Koch contribute to the study of Microorganisms?

To prove that a suspected pathogenic organism is only pathogenic if it is present in all cases, it can be grown separate and cause the same disease in a healthy host.

What are some examples of emerging diseases?

Lyme disease, AIDS, Mad Cow Disease, Toxic Shock Syndrome, SARS

What are the three domains of life?

Bacteria, Archae, and Eucarya

What is a virus?

agents that have a piece of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat

What are obligate intracellular parasites?

parasites that can only multiply inside a living host cell whose nutrients they use for reproduction

What are characteristics of bacteria?

They are 0.3-2 u in size, no nuclear membrane or organelles, have peptidoglycan in their cell wall, and they are found in all enviornments

What are the characteristics of Archae?

They are 0.3-2 u in size, no nuclear membrane or organelles, and found in all enviornments

What are the characteristics of Eucarya?

5-50 u in size, they have a nuclear membrane and organelles, and not found in extreme environments

What do viroids consist of?

a short piece of RNA

What do prions consist of?

protein

How are microbes measured?

Microns, Micrometers, and units equal to 1000 nanometers

What are the 6 most common elements in order of percentage in the cell?

Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur

What join charged atoms together?

Ionic Bonds

What are Cations?

Positively charged atoms

What are anions?

Negatively charged atoms

What bonds are created by sharing electrons of the outer shell?

Covalent bonds

What bonds are formed between positive Hydrogen and a negative atom?

Hydrogen Bonds

What, in order from strongest to weakest, is the level of strength of bonds?

Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen

The pH scale ranges from 0-14. The lower the number the more ______ it is. The higher the number the more ______ it is.

Acidic; Basic

What are four main types of Biochemical Compounds?

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acid

What is an example of a Carbohydrate?

Glucose

Glycosidic Bonds are formed when Glucose and Fructose combine to make what two things?

Sucrose and H2O

When is a peptide linkage formed?

When two amino acids are joined by the removal of a water molecule and a formation of a peptide bond between the -COOH of one and the -NH2 of another

What are the three protein structures and what they look like?

1. Primary -straight line
2. Secondary -spiral/helical
3. Tertiary -globular/crumpled ball

What two groups can the bases in nucleic acids be divided?

Purines and Pyrimidines

What nucleic acid bases are in the purine category?

Adenine and Guanine

What nucleic acid bases are in the pyrimidine category?

Cytosine and Thymine

What kind of bonds do nucleic acid have?

Covalent bonds

What kind of bonds are in DNA?

Hydrogen bonds

What makes up Adenosine Triphosphate?

1 Adenine, 1 Ribose, 3 Phosphate groups

What kind of fatty acids have no double bonds?

Saturated fatty acids

What kind of fatty acids have double bonds?

Unsaturated fatty acids

Staphylococcus aureus

Gram +
Coccus; Cluster arrangement
MRSA is a strain of this

Streptococcus pyogenes

Gram +
Coccus; Chain arrangement
Causes strep throat and flesh eating disease

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Gram +
Coccus; Diplococci
Causes pneumonia; non-pathogenic without capsule

Bacillus anthracis

Gram +
Rod; makes spores
Causes anthrax; D-Glutamate capsule

Bacillus cereus

Gram +
Rod; Sporing
Causes food poisoning

Bacillus subtilis

Gram +
Rod; Sporing
Non-pathogen

Listeria monocytogenes

Gram +
Rod; Sporing
Grows at 4C; tumbling motility at room temp

Clostridium perfringens

Gram +
Rod; Anaerobic; Sporing; Brick-shaped rod
Causes gas, gangrene, and food poisoning

C. tetani

Gram +
Rod; Anaerobic; Sporing; Drumstick shaped
Causes tetanus

C. botulinum

Gram +
Rod; Anaerobic; Sporing
Causes botulism

Microbacterium tuberculosis

Gram +
Rod; Acid-fast
Mycolic acid; causes TB

Escherichia coli

Gram -
Rod; Lives in intestinal tract
Mesophile; fac. anaerobe

Vibrio cholera

Gram -
Curved rod
Causes cholera; alkalinophile

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Gram -
Rod
Alginate capsule

Proteus

Gram -
Rod
Peritrichous

Treponema pallidum

Spiral shape
causes syphilis; Perplasmic flagella

Halobacterium

Rod
Extreme halophile

Bacillus stearothermophilus

Gram +
Rod; Sporing
Thermophile; used in QC of auto clave

Pseudomonas perfectomarinus

Gram -
Rod
Moderate Halophile

What are the 4 needs for Microscopy?

Magnification, Resolution, Contrast, Light

Microbiologist use shorter wavelengths to improve what on a microscope?

Resolution

What are the 4 ways light works with objects in a microscope?

Refraction, Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection

What is the most important light microscope stain?

Gram Stain

What stain is used for live organisms?

Wet mount

What stain only uses one reagent?

Simple Stain

What stain differentiates between organisms?

Differential Stain

What stain is used on organisms with mycolic acid?

Acid-fast Stain

What are the 3 characteristics of organisms?

Phenotypic, Genotypic, and chemical characteristics

What are the 3 main types of microscopes?

Light, Electron, and Scanning Probe Microscopes

What are bacterial extracellular structures?

Filamentous Appendages, Flagellum, Pilus, and Cell boundary

What is on the inside of bacterial cells?

DNA

What is a conjugation pilus?

Sex pilus that bacteria connect and transfer DNA

What are some bacterial movements?

Brownian movements, twitching, Gliding, axial filament motion

Gram + have thicker cell walls because of more what?

Peptidoglycan

Acid-fast bacteria have what on their cover?

Mycolic acid

Gram + have what acid whereas gram - do not?

Lipoteichoic acid

What are the 2 functions of the cell wall?

Keeps the cells shape and keeps it from bursting due to osmosis

What Carbon is the muramic acid radical on?

3rd Carbon

What Carbon is the n-acetyl group on?

2nd Carbon

Transport of unwanted molecules out?

Efflux

Movement of certain proteins out of the cell?

Secretion

Describe ABC transport

utilizes a binding protein outside cell membrane to deliver a given molecule to a specific transport complex within the cell membrane

What happens in group translocation?

chemically alters a molecule during its passage through the cell membrane

How do bacterial cells multiply?

Binary Fission

If bacteria multiply by binary fission, after 3 generations you will have how many cells?

8 cells

In regards to bacteria tolerating pH, what are most bacteria considered?

Neutrophilic

What are the types of bacteria that grow according to temperature starting with the lowest?

Psychrophilic, Mesophilic, Thermaphilic, and Extreme Thermaphilic

Bacteria that have to have a specific temp are considered what?

Obligate

Bacteria that have to have oxygen?

Aerobic

Bacteria that only need a tiny amount of oxygen?

Microaerophilic

Bacteria that can not grow in the presence of oxygen?

Obligate Anaerobes

Types of bacteria that can tolerate some some?

Halophilic

What are the 5 ways to measure bacterial growth?

Colony forming unit count, Most probable number, Filtration, Turbidity, and Microscopic Bacterial Count

What are the two main groups all microorganisms are divided into?

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

What are the 4 major elements in a medium?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

What are the 2 main types of cultures?

Synthetic and Complex

What are the 3 categories of medium?

Selective, Differential, and Enrichment

If you transfer 1mL of a 1:10 solution into a 99mL solution, what is the final dilution?

1:1000

Put bonds in order from weakest to strongest

Hydrogen, Ionic, Covalent

Name 3 foods that are made from microbes?

Soy Sauce, cabbage, sauerkraut

True or False? Heat fixation keeps a specimen mobilized

False

True or false? A bacterial cell with one flagella is known as a monotrichous

True

True or False? Archae have peptidoglycan in their cell walls

False

In what types of organisms are viroids responsible for a large number of diseases?

Plants

What type of stain is used to stain specific structures inside or outside the cell?

Special Stain

What type of stain is often used to identify bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium?

Gram Stain

What is the capsule found on Pseudomonas aeruginosa a polymer of?

alginate

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