What is Microbiology?
the study of microscopic organisms
What are the subfields of Microbiology?
Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Protozoology, Immunology, and some of Parasitology
What are anaerobic bacteria?
Bacteria that live in the absence of oxygen
What is a phototroph?
They get their food/energy from light
What are cyanobacteria?
They are photosynthetic bacteria
What is a prokaryote?
Bacteria with no organelles, no nucleus, and 70S ribosomes
What are Eukaryotes?
Higher level cells with mitochondria, nuclear membrane, and 80S ribosomes
Some microbes can tolerate:
A) Flames B) 112 C
C) -80 C D) pH of <1.0 E) All of the above
E) All of the above
What are some examples of the application of Microbiology?
Probiotics, Beer Production, Bioremediation
What is Bioremediation
The use of living organisms to degrade environmental pollutants
When was the first recorded flu epidemic?
When did Anthrax kill thousands of Roman soldiers?
Who was the theory of Spontaneous Generation disproved by?
The importance in disproving Spontaneous Generation was that it showed contamination of a sterile liquid was prevented by what?
Prevented by microbes entering the flask
John Tyndall showed bacteria can exist in what two forms?
heat labile and heat resistant
What are heat resistant bacteria called?
Tyndall also showed that intermittent heating enabled what?
What did Robert Koch contribute to the study of Microorganisms?
To prove that a suspected pathogenic organism is only pathogenic if it is present in all cases, it can be grown separate and cause the same disease in a healthy host.
What are some examples of emerging diseases?
Lyme disease, AIDS, Mad Cow Disease, Toxic Shock Syndrome, SARS
What are the three domains of life?
Bacteria, Archae, and Eucarya
What is a virus?
agents that have a piece of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
What are obligate intracellular parasites?
parasites that can only multiply inside a living host cell whose nutrients they use for reproduction
What are characteristics of bacteria?
They are 0.3-2 u in size, no nuclear membrane or organelles, have peptidoglycan in their cell wall, and they are found in all enviornments
What are the characteristics of Archae?
They are 0.3-2 u in size, no nuclear membrane or organelles, and found in all enviornments
What are the characteristics of Eucarya?
5-50 u in size, they have a nuclear membrane and organelles, and not found in extreme environments
What do viroids consist of?
a short piece of RNA
What do prions consist of?
How are microbes measured?
Microns, Micrometers, and units equal to 1000 nanometers
What are the 6 most common elements in order of percentage in the cell?
Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur
What join charged atoms together?
What are Cations?
Positively charged atoms
What are anions?
Negatively charged atoms
What bonds are created by sharing electrons of the outer shell?
What bonds are formed between positive Hydrogen and a negative atom?
What, in order from strongest to weakest, is the level of strength of bonds?
Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen
The pH scale ranges from 0-14. The lower the number the more ______ it is. The higher the number the more ______ it is.
What are four main types of Biochemical Compounds?
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acid
What is an example of a Carbohydrate?
Glycosidic Bonds are formed when Glucose and Fructose combine to make what two things?
Sucrose and H2O
When is a peptide linkage formed?
When two amino acids are joined by the removal of a water molecule and a formation of a peptide bond between the -COOH of one and the -NH2 of another
What are the three protein structures and what they look like?
1. Primary -straight line
2. Secondary -spiral/helical
3. Tertiary -globular/crumpled ball
What two groups can the bases in nucleic acids be divided?
Purines and Pyrimidines
What nucleic acid bases are in the purine category?
Adenine and Guanine
What nucleic acid bases are in the pyrimidine category?
Cytosine and Thymine
What kind of bonds do nucleic acid have?
What kind of bonds are in DNA?
What makes up Adenosine Triphosphate?
1 Adenine, 1 Ribose, 3 Phosphate groups
What kind of fatty acids have no double bonds?
Saturated fatty acids
What kind of fatty acids have double bonds?
Unsaturated fatty acids
Coccus; Cluster arrangement
MRSA is a strain of this
Coccus; Chain arrangement
Causes strep throat and flesh eating disease
Causes pneumonia; non-pathogenic without capsule
Rod; makes spores
Causes anthrax; D-Glutamate capsule
Causes food poisoning
Grows at 4C; tumbling motility at room temp
Rod; Anaerobic; Sporing; Brick-shaped rod
Causes gas, gangrene, and food poisoning
Rod; Anaerobic; Sporing; Drumstick shaped
Rod; Anaerobic; Sporing
Mycolic acid; causes TB
Rod; Lives in intestinal tract
Mesophile; fac. anaerobe
Causes cholera; alkalinophile
causes syphilis; Perplasmic flagella
Thermophile; used in QC of auto clave
What are the 4 needs for Microscopy?
Magnification, Resolution, Contrast, Light
Microbiologist use shorter wavelengths to improve what on a microscope?
What are the 4 ways light works with objects in a microscope?
Refraction, Transmission, Absorption, and Reflection
What is the most important light microscope stain?
What stain is used for live organisms?
What stain only uses one reagent?
What stain differentiates between organisms?
What stain is used on organisms with mycolic acid?
What are the 3 characteristics of organisms?
Phenotypic, Genotypic, and chemical characteristics
What are the 3 main types of microscopes?
Light, Electron, and Scanning Probe Microscopes
What are bacterial extracellular structures?
Filamentous Appendages, Flagellum, Pilus, and Cell boundary
What is on the inside of bacterial cells?
What is a conjugation pilus?
Sex pilus that bacteria connect and transfer DNA
What are some bacterial movements?
Brownian movements, twitching, Gliding, axial filament motion
Gram + have thicker cell walls because of more what?
Acid-fast bacteria have what on their cover?
Gram + have what acid whereas gram - do not?
What are the 2 functions of the cell wall?
Keeps the cells shape and keeps it from bursting due to osmosis
What Carbon is the muramic acid radical on?
What Carbon is the n-acetyl group on?
Transport of unwanted molecules out?
Movement of certain proteins out of the cell?
Describe ABC transport
utilizes a binding protein outside cell membrane to deliver a given molecule to a specific transport complex within the cell membrane
What happens in group translocation?
chemically alters a molecule during its passage through the cell membrane
How do bacterial cells multiply?
If bacteria multiply by binary fission, after 3 generations you will have how many cells?
In regards to bacteria tolerating pH, what are most bacteria considered?
What are the types of bacteria that grow according to temperature starting with the lowest?
Psychrophilic, Mesophilic, Thermaphilic, and Extreme Thermaphilic
Bacteria that have to have a specific temp are considered what?
Bacteria that have to have oxygen?
Bacteria that only need a tiny amount of oxygen?
Bacteria that can not grow in the presence of oxygen?
Types of bacteria that can tolerate some some?
What are the 5 ways to measure bacterial growth?
Colony forming unit count, Most probable number, Filtration, Turbidity, and Microscopic Bacterial Count
What are the two main groups all microorganisms are divided into?
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
What are the 4 major elements in a medium?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
What are the 2 main types of cultures?
Synthetic and Complex
What are the 3 categories of medium?
Selective, Differential, and Enrichment
If you transfer 1mL of a 1:10 solution into a 99mL solution, what is the final dilution?
Put bonds in order from weakest to strongest
Hydrogen, Ionic, Covalent
Name 3 foods that are made from microbes?
Soy Sauce, cabbage, sauerkraut
True or False? Heat fixation keeps a specimen mobilized
True or false? A bacterial cell with one flagella is known as a monotrichous
True or False? Archae have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
In what types of organisms are viroids responsible for a large number of diseases?
What type of stain is used to stain specific structures inside or outside the cell?
What type of stain is often used to identify bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium?
What is the capsule found on Pseudomonas aeruginosa a polymer of?