Chemical Principles 5th Edition Section A, B, C

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Matter and Energy

PHYSICAL PROPERTY

A characteristic that we can observe or measure without changing the identity of the substance

INTENSIVE PROPERTY

Independent of the size of the sample. Temperature is a ________ because it doesn't matter how much water is in the bath, the temperature will stay the same.

EXTENSIVE PROPERTY

Dependent of the size of the sample. 2qt's of milk is twice as much as 1 qt.

CHEMICAL PROPERTY

The ability of a substance to be changed into another substance

PHYSICAL CHANGE

The identity of a substance doesn't change while the physical properties do change. (Water that gets frozen)

CHEMICAL CHANGE

When a substance is changed into a different substance

SYSTEME INTERNATIONAL (SI)

Can be expressed as meter, gram, and second.

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES

The number of digits that can be justified by the data

VELOCITY

The rate of change of position

ENERGY

The capacity to do work

KINETIC ENERGY

Ek, energy that a body possesses due to it's motion. Ek=1/2mv²

POTENTIAL ENERGY

Ep, energy an object possesses due to its position in a field of force. Ep=mgh

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

the energy due to attraction and repulsions between electric charges

ELECTRIC FIELD

A region of influence that affects changed particles

MAGNETIC FIELD

A region of influence that affects the motion of moving charged particles

THERMAL MOTION

the random, chaotic motion of atoms.

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.

CHEMICAL ENERGY

The energy available from a chemical reaction. Example: the energy released in the combustion of fuel.

ATOM

(1) The smallest particle of an element that has the chemical properties of the element. (2) An electrically neutral species consisting of nucleus and it's surrounding electrons.

NUCLEAR MODEL

A model of the atom in which the electrons surround a minute central nucleus.

NUCLEUS

the positively charged dense center of an atom

ELECTRON

an elementary particle with negative charge

PROTON

a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron

ATOMIC NUMBER

(Z) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; this number determines the identity of the element and the nmber of electrons in the neutral atom.

MASS SPECTROMETER

spectroscope for obtaining a mass spectrum by deflecting ions into a thin slit and measuring the ion current with an electrometer

ISOTOPES

atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

NEUTRONS

the particles of the nucleus that have no charge

NUCLEONS

a proton or a neutron

MASS NUMBER

the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

GROUPS

vertical columns of the periodic table

MAIN GROUPS

Any one of the groups forming the s- and p-blocks of the periodic table. 1-2, 13-18 groups

BLOCKS

(s-block, p-block, d-block, f-block) The region of the periodic table containing elements for which, according to the building-up principle, the corresponding sub-shell is currently being filled.

TRANSITION METALS

An element that is a member of group 3-11.

INNER TRANSITION METALS

A member of the f-block of the periodic table (the lanthanoids and actinoids)

LANTHANOIDS

A member of the first row of the f-block (cerium-ytterbium)

ACTINOIDS

A member of the second row of the f-block

ALKALI METALS

A member of group 1 of the periodic table (the lithium family)

ALKALINE EARTH METALS

Calcium, strontium, and barium; more informally a member of group 2 of the periodic table (the beryllium family)

NOBLE GASES

A member of group 18/ VIII of the periodic table (helium family).

HALOGENS

A member of group 17/VII.

METAL

(1) A substance that conducts electricity, has a metallic luster, is a malleable and ductile, forms cations, and has basic oxides. (2) consists of cations held together by a sea of electrons.

NONMETAL

A substance that does not conduct electricity and is neither malleable nor ductile.

METALLOID

An element that has the physical appreance and properties of a metal but behaves chemically like a nonmetal.

COMPOUND

(1) A specific combination of elements that can be separated into its elements by chemical techniques but not physical technique. (2) A substance consisting of atoms of two or more elements in a definite, unchangeable ration.

BINARY COMPOUND

Consisting of two components, as in binary mixture and binary (ionic or molecular) compound. Examples; acetone and water (a binary mixture); HCl, CaCl₂

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

A compound containing the element carbon and usually hydrogen. (the carbonates are usually excluded).

INORGANIC COMPOUNDS

A compound that is not organic.

INTERMETALIC COMPOUNDS

An inorganic compound formed from two metals in specific proportions. Examples; NiTi, Ag₃Sn, FeCo

MOLECULE

(1) The smallest particle of a compound that possesses the chemical properties of the compound. (2) A definate, distinct, electrically neutral group of bonded atoms. Examples: H₂, NH₃, CH₃COOH

CATION

a positively charged ion. Examples: Na⁺, NH₄⁺

ION

An electronically charged Atom or group of atoms. Examples; Al³⁺, SO²⁻

ANION

A negatively charged ion. Examples; F⁻, SO₄²⁻

IONIC COMPOUND

a compound that consists of positive and negative ions

MOLECULAR COMPOUND

a compound that is composed of molecules. Examples: Water, sulfur hexafluoride, benzoic acid.

STRUCTURAL FORMULA

A chemical formula that shows how atoms in a compound are attached to one another.

SPACE-FILLING MODEL

A depiction of a molecule in which atoms are represented by spheres that indicate the space occupied by each atom

TUBE STRUCTURE

A representation of molecular structure that uses tubes to indicate the lengths and distances of bonds. The ends of each tube are colored to indicate the identities of the elements forming the bond.

DENSITY ISOSURFACE

A Graphic image that represents a molecular structure as a surface and show the distribution of electrons in a molecule; the surface corresponds to locations with the same electron density.

ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIAL SURFACE

A molecular structure in which the net charge is calculated at each point of the density isosurface and depicted by different colors; an "elpot" surface.

MONATOMIC IONS

An ion formed from a single atom. Examples Na⁺; Cl⁻

DIATOMIC ION

An ion that consists of two atoms with a net charge.

POLYATOMIC ION

a charged group of covalently bonded atoms

OXOANIONS

An anion of an oxoacid. Examples: HCO₃⁻; CO₃²⁻

FORMULA UNIT

The group of ions that matches the formula of the smallest unit of an ionic compound.

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