a pope, whose greatest vice was "militancy", or an obsession with fighting.
young king, whose rule is heavily influenced by advisors. had no male heir.
(aka bloody mary) murders protestants, opresses majority, marries Philip II of spain. poor ruler.
(aka the virgin queen) legitimizes rule by act of succession, not divine rights. no marriage (while nobles think they have a shot, she raises england to a great power), unifies faiths with the book of common prayers, executes mary queen of scots (appears to have chosen protestantism), defeats the spanish armada, and brings england into their golden ages.
signs concordat of bologna, which gives france power to appoint abbots and bishops. feeds information to priests to give to commoners, without them knowing the source.
Ferdinand and Isabella
of spain... sponsor christopher columbus, define culture of spain as "catholic"
(aka carlos I) king of spain, and holy roman empire. unable to form a universal monarchy because he is unable to take france (support of portuguese and nobles)
invents the printing press, which helps to spur the entire reformation--level of education increases
founder of "Lutheranism", spurs reformation by posting the 95 Theses, but mostly successful just because of good timing
founds the Angican church, very similar to Catholic, except divorce is legal
starts a religious reform in Switzerland, but dies before it is completely executed
adopts ideas of Zwingli, to found the Calvanist faith
Pope Paul III
makes church more spiritual, goes after heretics (protestants), helps to clarify doctrines in The Council of Trent
Pope Paul IV
writes Index of Forbidden Books, restricting from certain books which are "harmful"--easier than book burning
Ignatius de Loyola
founds the Jesuits, with strict obedience almost like a military. effective spread of catholisism
Pope Alexander VI
creates an edict called the Treaty of Tordesillas, to determine who can colonize in what areas, geographically
(Portugal) sails around cape of good hope, proving that africa had an end and trade routes around the continent were possible.
(Spain) found the Americas (San Salvador) while attempting to find a new trade route to India and China
Vasco da Gama
(Portugal) sailed around cape of good hope and across the indian ocean, into india. brought back spices and jewels, and created new trade routes to india.
(Portugal) introduced the theory that the land that Columbus discovered as not india, but the "New World" -- namesake for the Americas
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
(Spain) crossed the ithsmus of panama, and first sailed in the Pacific Ocean... names it the "South Sea'
(Spain) conquers the Aztecs by taking over the city of Tenochtitlan. gained the lands of Mexico
(Spain) first to sail all the way around the world... sailed from spain to south america and philippenes (Pacific ocean), and died before return to spain. crew member Cano sails back.
Joan Ponce de Leon
(Spain) explored what is today Florida, claimed the land for Spain
(Spain) conquered Inca Empire in Peru and along the Andes mountains
Hernando de Soto
(Spain) discovered the mississippi river and explored Tennessee and Arkansas
(Dutch/England) explored east canada and new england. discovered the hudson bay and the hudson river (named for himself)
(Polish) -- described the heliocentric theory "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"
(German) -- theory that planets orbit in ovals, not perfect circle. proves Copernicus' theory
(Italian) -- objects of different weight fall at the same speed in a vacuum, improves telescope and thermometer which gives better and more precise data, discovers four moons of jupiter "Dialogue of the Two Great Systems of the World"
(Flemish) -- "On the Fabric of the Human Body", investigations in anatomy
(English) -- described the circulation of the blood
(English) -- inductive method: knowledge built on observation and repetition, confidence in science as a panacea
(French) -- *** nature and philosophy by mathematical analysis (Rationalism), "Discourse on Method" all must be proven
Anton van Leewenhoek
(Dutch) -- describes bacteria with a microscope (Hooke used to see cells)
(English) -- "Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy (Principia)" synthesis of entire scientific revolution thus far, for the common person
(French) -- law of conservation of matter ,names oxygen
(German) -- invents calculus
(English) -- used a microscope to discover cells
(English) -- founder of modern chemistry, p*V=C for noble gasses (relationships between variables)