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George Washington

Federalist; position of neutrality in foreign affairs

Alexander Hamilton

Federalist; favored creation of National Bank

John Jay

1st Chief Justice

Thomas Jefferson

Anti-Federalist; beleived in small governmnet

Excise Tax

a tax on the manufacturing of an item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers. This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.

Alien Act

increased the number of years from 5 to 14 before eligible for citizenship, President given power to deport or imprison aliens considered dangerous

Sedition Act

1798, (JA) , made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government

XYZ Affair

(JA) , incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues

Marbury v. Madison

The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).

Edmond Genet

Sent by France to the US to enlist American aid in the French revolution with or without the Washington administration's consent. He openly commissioned American privateers to harass British shipping and enlisted Americans in intrigues against the Spanish outpost of New Orleans. He also opened France's Caribbean colonies to American shipping, providing American shippers a choice between French free trade and British mercantilism.

Jay's Treaty

1794- british and us agreed- british trade w/ americans and the british leave northwest territory

Pinckney's Treaty

Also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo, this 1795 treaty established commercial relations between Spain and the United States, granted the United States free navigation of the Mississippi River through Spanish territory, and fixed the boundaries of Louisiana and Florida.

Right to Deposit

was given to the the Americans so that they could transfer cargoes in New Orleans without paying duties to the Spanish government.

Louisiana Purchase

The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.

Protective Tariff

a tax imposed on imports; to protect domestic firms from import competition

Whiskey Rebellion

(GW) In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

French Revolution

The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.

Jacobins

very radical French revolutionary party responsible for Reign of Terror and execution of king

Bourbons

ruled France from the late 1600s until the French Revolution, Louis XIV and Louis XVI- Bourbon kings, develop strong Huguenot sympathies

Huguenot

a French Calvinist of the 16th or 17th centuries

Calvanist

Believed in predestination, God has chosen who is saved, God is the source of authority

GW's Cabinet

Treasury, State, War

Nullification

the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress

Sectionalism

loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country

Little Turtle

Chief of the Miami (Ohio) who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace

Kentucky Resolution

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

Judicial Review

the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional

William Clark

United States explorer who (with Meriwether Lewis) led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River

Meriwether Lewis

United States explorer and soldier who lead led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River (1774-1809); personal secretary to Jefferson

John Marshall

1755-1835. U.S. Chief Supreme Court Justice. Oversaw over 1000 decisions, including Marbury v Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.

Aaron Burr

served as the 3rd Vice President of the United States. Member of the Republicans and President of the Senate during his Vice Presidency. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed him.

Sacajawea

Shoshoni woman who accompanied the explorers from St. Louis to the Pacific; she served as an interpreter

Judiciary Act 1801

Passed by the lame-duck Federalists in Congress in 1801 after the election of Democratic-Republican president Thomas Jefferson, this act was a blend of needed judicial reform and partisan politics. The law added six new circuit courts and added 16 new judgeships, along with their support staffs, for outgoing Federalist president John Adams to fill. These judgeships were criticized as "midnight appointments."

Midnight judges

The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.

cabinet

persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers

judiciary act 1789

It was an act past by the first Congress that established the first federal courts and organized the Supreme Court comprised of a chief justice and five associates, as well as federal district and circuit courts.

Bank of the United States

Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.

Federalists

Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.

Antifederalists

Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government. Strict constructionists with interpretation of constitution.

District of Colombia

deal brokered by Jefferson and Hamilton in relocating the national capital city along the Potomac River - granted to Virginia in exchange for Virginia's compliance with Hamilton's plan to assume state debts (aka - assumption)

assumption

Economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.

Democratic-Republicans

Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank

Strict construction

way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take

Loose construction

a person who interprets the constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid (or define) it from taking.

Battle of Fallen Timbers

A battle on August 20, 1794, between U.S. forces lead by Gen. Anthony Wayne and Shawnee at Fallen Timbers, south of present day Toledo, Ohio. Wayne routed the Native Americans in a matter of hours. The victory speeded the end of native resistance in the northwest frontier and it underlined the power of the new Federal government. It also permanently ended the power of the British on American soil, when British forces at a nearby fort refused sanctuary to the defeated Shawnee, fearing war with the United States.

Embargo Act of 1807

Restrictive trade policy that hurt Britain but hurt American shippers and farmers even more during Jefferson's 2nd administration

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