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Democracy & Reform

The Whig-Tory debate

(Mid 19th) Whigs (minority party) pushed for expanding the vote, but always voted down by Tories (majority party)

Reform Act of 1832 (Middle Class Voting Act)

(Mid 19th) 1. lowered prop. qualifications for voting
2. gave many M/C males the vote (from 1 in a 100 to 1 in 32)
3. reduced the # of rural MPs (members of Parliament) by 143

The Chartist Movement

(Mid 19th) Demanded: 1. Universal manhood suffrage (no prop. qual.)
2. Secret ballots
3. Salaries for MPs
4. Equal electoral districts

Anti-Corn Law League

(Mid 19th) Fought the corn (grain) laws

Queen Victoria

(Mid 19th - Early 20th) longest reigning British monarch

Disfranchisement

To deprive of a privilege, an immunity, or a right of citizenship, especially the right to vote

Whigs (Liberals)

(mid 19th) pushed for expanding the vote

Tories (Conservatives)

(mid 19th) Majority party in the National Assembly, continually voted down bills proposed by Liberals

Anti-Corn Laws

(Mid 19th) Laws that severely taxed the importation of foreign grain to protect domestic grain production

Suffragists(ettes)

(early 20th) People fighting for the voting rights of their sex

Home rule

(late 19th?) local self government

William Gladstone

(late 19th) Irish politician that pushed hard for home rule & intro. bill in 1886; defeated; split Liberal Party

Benjamin Disraeli

(late 19th) Served twice as Prime Minister of Great Britain, Conservative Party, pushed for Reform Act of 1867

Fabian Society

(late 19th) A group of middle-class intellectuals who formed with the aim of peacefully and gradually preparing the way for a Socialist government; promoted social justice such as improved conditions for workers and favored parliamentary action over strikes and demonstatrions

Reform Act of 1867

(Late 19th) Lowered prop. qual., Extended vote to all male homeowners & most renters, Inc. electorate by 1 mill. men

Labor Party

(Late 19th) A left-of-center political party formed to represent the interests of ordinary working people

1911 Parliament Act

(early 20th) Parl. Act. removed all $ bills from House of Legislature's jurisdiction in order to let the House of C... pass bills for reforms

The Pankhursts

(early 20th) A family of suffragettes who founded the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU)

WSPU

(early 20th) The Women's Social and Political Union, led a campaign on behalf of all British women, founded by the Pankhursts

Charles Parnell

(Mid 19th) An Irish politician that led Irish nationalists seeking a debate on home rule in Parliament

Dominion/commonwealth

(Late 19th) A self-governing territory owing allegiance to the British king or queen

Impact of French-Indian War

(Late 18th) British had control of Quebec and there were French and Catholic resentments

Constitutional Act of 1791

(Late 18th) Divided Quebec into two colonies: Upper Canada (British) - Ontario;
Lower Canada (French) - Quebec;
Each had assembly & Gov.-Gen.

1837 Rebellions

(Mid 19th) between Upper & Lower Canada (British & French) for dominance

Lord Durham

(mid 19th) Recommended dominion status for upper and lower Canada

British North America Act

(late 19th) est. Canada as a dominion (self-governing territory) w. a Parliament & P.M.;
Ontario/Quebec/Nova Scotia/New Brunswick

Maori

(Mid 19th) original inhabitants of New Zealand

Aborigines

(Late 19th) Native inhabitants of Australia

Treaty of Waitangi

(Late 19th) Granted Maori Rights in exchange for British sovereignty

Ultra-royalists

(Early 19th) Nobles who favored a return to the old order

Louis 18th/Charles X

restored the Bourbon monarchy, succeeded by the leader of the ultraroyalists who tried to re-establish the absolute monarchy

July Ordinances

(Early 19th) 1. abolished legislature
2. abolished freedom of press
3. restricted voting rights

Revolution of 1830

Revolt by the people of France against Charles X and his July Ordinances, "Three Glorious Days" that forced him to abdicate the throne

The "Citizen-King"

(Early - Mid 19th) Louis Phillipe, succeeded Charles X as king of France, known as the Citizen-King because he dress and acted like a middle class citizen

Francois Guizot

(Mid 19th) Prime Minister of France during Louis Philippe's rule

Commune of Paris

(Late 19th) Socialist government temporarily established in France that refused to recognize the National Assembly

Revolution of 1848

Crowds and soldiers crowded the streets of France that led to Louis Philipe abdicating and the 2nd Republic of France being established

Second Republic/Empire

(Mid 19th) Napoleon III dissolves 2nd Rep. and est. 2nd empire, imprisoned enemies; restored indi. Rights; Called for plebiscite/new constitution

Louis-Napoleon (III)

(Mid 19th) Second emperor of France, established the second Empire of France

plebiscite

(Mid 19th) majority vote that brought Napoleon III to power

Crimean War

(Mid 19th) War between France/GB/Ottomans and Russia; causes: 1. Dispute over land b/t France, GB & Russia in decaying Ottoman Empire
2. Who had right to protect Christians in empire & visiting Holy Land
3. Trade interests of GB & France in the region
4. France/GB maintaining balance of power; Russia loses

Franco-Prussian War

(Late 19th) War between France and Prussia that leads to the capturing of Napoleon III and the end of the second empire

General Boulanger

(Late 19th) Threat to the Third Republic's power, war hero who tried and failed a coup d'etat

Bloody Week

(Late 19th) Fight between Commune of Paris and Nat. Assembly that ended Franco-Prussian War and ended the Commune of Paris; 40,000 killed

Third Republic

(Late 19th) new constitution est. a republican gov't with a president, a premier, & a cabinet in France

Panama Canal Crisis

(Late 19th) Failure to finance construction due to pol. corruption & scandal led to numerous stockholders loosing money and accusing the government of a conspiracy

Dreyfus Affair

(Late 19th) Jewish army officer accused of espionage and put on trial several times in France

Peninsulares

(19th) people orn in Spain or Portugal, at the top of Latin American social order

Creoles

(19th) Colonial-born white aristocrats, second in the Latin American social order

Mestizos/Mulattoes

(19th) Largest of the Latin American social classes that were a mix of Native Americans and and those of European anscestry

Francois Toussaint-L'Overture

(late 18th) Leader of a Haitian revolt against French control

Miguel Hidalgo/Morelos/Iturbide

(Early 19th) Leaders of Mexican revolution

Simon Bolivar

(early 19th) Known as the "Liberator"; Won freedom for Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia, & Ecuador from European powers

Jose de San Martin

(early 19th) Gained independence for Chile (1818) & Peru (1820)

Bernardo O'Higgins

(early 19th) Assisted Jose de San Martin in achieving independence for Chile

King John VI/Pedro I

(Early 19th) King of Portugal who was exiled by Napoleon, ruled in Brazil. His son became king after his father died. Brazil first self governing state within an empire in South America

Candillos

(18th-19th) Similar to the warlords in Japan, but in South America

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