Roman Empire/Christianity

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Augustus

the first emperor of Rome; means "sacred one"

Princeps

"first citizen"; the title by which Augustus preferred to be called

Pax Romana

27 BC-180 AD; the time of Roman peace

Res Gestae

...

Julio-Claudians

the five emperors that succeeded Julius Caesar; includes Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero

Tiberius

Augustus' step son who spent most of his reign secluded on an island letting his Praetorian Guard rule the empire

Caligula

"little boots"; he appointed his horse to the Senate

Claudius

the physically deformed emperor who did an excellent job ruling before being killed by his wife

Nero

he burned down half of the city and blamed it on the cult of Christianity

Flavians

...

Vespasian

the first flavian who established control after the death of Nero; built the coliseum

Bread and Circuses

the coliseum; symbolizes the idea that the loyalty of the Roman people can be bought

Titus

famous for his campaign in Israel; he was emperor when Vesuvius erupted

Antonines

the 5 good emperors: nerva, trajan, hadrian, marcus aurelius, and commodus

Nerva

he established the system of succession in which emperors would choose their heir

Trajan

the Spanish emperor who ruled the empire at its height

Hadrian

he believed that the empire had grown too big and established borders to limits Roman influence

Marcus Aurelius

the philosopher king who spent most of his reign dealing with Germanic invasion and disease

Pantheon

a domed temple in Rome that was completed in 27 BC by Agrippa (under Hadrian)

Commodus

the emperor who wished to be referred to as Hercules

Diocletian

the emperor of Rome who split the empire in half to make it more manageable and instituted the greatest Christian persecution in history

Tetrarchy

system of rule where each half of the empire had two rulers, by diocletian

Constantine

he moved the capital from Rome to a more defensible location in the eastern empire

Chi-Rho

sign of the Christian faith

Milvian Bridge

the battle after which Constantine solidified control over the Roman Empire

Edict of Milan

Constantine's announcement that legalized Christianity in the Roman empire

Constantinople

the "new rome" located in Turkey

Theodosius

the emperor who made Christianity the official religion of Rome outlawing paganism

Goths

Germanic tribe that split into two distinct tribes, rebelled at the battle of adrianople

Vandals

the Germanic group that sacked Rome in 455 and burned the city to the ground

Odovacer

a general who rode into Rome and placed the child emperor Romulus Augustulus in a monastery to end the Roman empire in 476

476 AD

the fall of the Roman empire

Jesus of Nazareth

the founder and central figure of Christianity

Parables

stories meant to teach a social or moral lesson

Messiah

the Hebrew idea of a savior meant to save and redefine the world

Pontius Pilate

the Roman governor who sentenced Jesus to death

New Testament

contained 4 gospels; written in Greek not Aramaic

Gospels

"good news"; collections of letters sent from early Christian leaders to new converts

St. Peter

the first official leader of the Christian movement after the death of Christ. he was crucifed upside down by Nero

Martyr

one who suffers much in order to further a belief, cause, or principle

St. Paul

the man most responsible for the spread of Christianity onto the gentiles

Gentiles

non-Jews

Epistles

the letters of Paul written to early churches

Church

a place for public (especially Christian) worship

Catholic

"universal"; way in which early Christians define the goal of their faith

Catacombs

underground areas in which early Christians were forced to worship

Eucharist

worship centered around this practice with bread and wine; taken from the last supper of Jesus

Baptism

a symbolic cleansing of sin that was normally used to initiate children into the Christian faith

Diocese

a Roman territorial office ruled by a bishop

Presbyters

a group of clerics that assisted the bishop; became known as priests

Council of Nicea

325; a council of early Christian leaders called by Constantine to standardize Christian practices

Heresy

becoming a tool of the devil or an open enemy of Christianityl

Arius

a bishop who's questioning of the perfection of god caused a huge split in early Christian thought

Nicene Creed

the document released by the Council of Nicea which unified the ideas of the church

Theodosius

made Christianity the official religion

Theology

the study of nature of God and religious truth

St. Jerome

he translated the bible into Latin (vulgate)

Vulgate

the latin translation of the bible; translated by saint jerome

St. Augustine

the theologian that described heaven and spoke of the absolute authority of religious leaders over secular ones

First Apostolic Council

...

Leo I

the pope who stopped Attila from destroying the city of Rome

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