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T or F: Once fatty streaks accumulate, they form foam cells that cause immunologic changes that damage the endothelium

False. Foam cells accumulate to form a fatty streak.

T or F: When fluid collects gradually in a pericardial effusion, the pericardium stretches to accommodate large quantities of fluid without compressing the heart.

True

T or False: An increase in left ventricular end-diastolic volume in diastolic heart failure may lead to pulmonary edema.

True

T or F: Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides are increased in congestive heart failure and may have some protective effect in decreasing preload.

True

Which statement about the pericardium is false?
a.It is a double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart.
b.It is composed of connective tissue and a layer of squamous cells.
c.It protects the heart against infection and inflammation from the lungs and pleural space.
d.It contains pain and mechanoreceptors that can elicit reflex changes in blood pressure and heart rate.

B

What is an expected change in the cardiovascular system that occurs with aging?
a. Arterial stiffening
b. Decreased left ventricular wall tension
c. Decreased aortic wall thickness
d. Arteriosclerosis

A. Arterial Stiffening occurs with aging

What alteration occurs in injured endothelial cells that contributes to atherosclerosis?
a. They release toxic oxygen radicals that oxidize low-density lipoproteins (LDL).
b. They are unable to make the normal amount of vasodilating cytokines.
c. They produce an increased amount of antithrombic cytokines.
d. They develop a hypersensitivity to homocystine and lipids.

B. Injured endothelial cells do not make enough vasodilating and antithrombotic factors, which contributes to atherosclerosis

Which source of emboli introduces antigens, cells, and protein aggregates that trigger an immune response within the bloodstream?
a. Amniotic fluid
b. Fat
c. Bacteria
d. Air

A. Amniotic fluid introduces antigens, cells, and protein aggregates that trigger an immune response within the bloodstream

Coronary artery disease can diminish the myocardial blood supply until deprivation impairs myocardial metabolism enough to cause _____, a local state in which the cells are temporarily deprived of blood supply.
a. infarction
b. ischemia
c. necrosis
d. inflammation

B. Ischemia

Of the following risk factors for coronary artery disease, which is responsible for a twofold to threefold increase in risk?
a. Diabetes mellitus
b. Hypertension
c. Obesity
d. High alcohol consumption

B. HTN increase risk of CAD by 2-3X

An individual is demonstrating elevated levels of troponin, creatine kinase (CK), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). These elevated levels indicate:
a. myocardial ischemia.
b. hypertension.
c. myocardial infarction.
d. coronary artery disease.

C. Elevated Troponin, Creatine Kinase and Lactic dehydrogenase indicate myocardial infarction

How does angiotensin II increase the workload of the heart after a myocardial infarction?
a. By increasing the peripheral vascular resistance
b. By causing dysrhythmias as a result of hyperkalemia
c. By reducing the contractility of the myocardium
d. By stimulating the sympathetic nervous system

A. Angiotensin II incr the workload of the heart by increasing peripheral vascular resistance

A patient complains of sudden onset of severe chest pain that radiates to the back and worsens with respiratory movement and when lying down. What is causing these clinical manifestations?
a. Myocardial infarction
b. Pericardial effusion
c. Restrictive pericarditis
d. Acute pericarditis

D. Acute pericariditis, pain worsens w/ respiratory movement and when lying down

What are clinical manifestations of aortic stenosis?
a. Jugular vein distension
b. Bounding pulses
c. Peripheral edema
d. Dyspnea on exertion

D. Aortic Stenosis would cause the manifestation of dyspnea on exertion because it causes bradycardia

Aortic and mitral regurgitation and mitral stenosis are all caused by which of the following?
a. Congenital malformation
b. Cardiac failure
c. Rheumatic fever
d. Coronary artery disease

C. Rhematic fever causes aortic & mitral regurg & mitral stenosis

A patient is diagnosed with pulmonary disease and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Which of the following heart failures may result from this condition?
a. Right heart failure
b. Left heart failure
c. Low-output failure
d. High-output failure

A. Right heart failure
Incr pulmonary vascular resistance/ secondary HTN causes cor pulmonale and then R. Heart Failure

Ventricular remodeling is a result of:
a. left ventricular hypertrophy.
b. right ventricular failure.
c. myocardial ischemia.
d. contractile dysfunction.

C. Ventricular remodeling is a result of: myocardial ischemia.

In systolic heart failure, what effect does angiotensin II have on stroke volume?
a. Increases preload and decreases afterload
b. Increases preload and increases afterload
c. Decreases preload and increases afterload
d. Decreases preload and decreases afterload

B. Ang II increases preload and afterload in sys heart failure

Which of the following is TRUE regarding the pathophysiology of asthma?
A. Inflammation results in airway hyperresponsiveness.
B. IgA is the major factor.
C. The inflammatory process is due to loss of bronchial smooth muscle spasm.
D. There is decreased vascular permeability.

A. Asthma is caused by inflammation which results in airway hyperresponsiveness

What are the differences in arterial walls versus vs. walls that promote clot formation?
a. There is inflammation of the endothelium of the artery and roughing of the endothelium of the vein.
b. There is vasoconstriction of the endothelium of the artery and hypertrophy of the endothelium of the vein.
c. There is excessive clot formation of the endothelium of the artery and lipid accumulation of the endothelium of the vein.
d. There is roughening of the endothelium of the artery and inflammation of the endothelium of the vein.

D. There is roughening of the endothelium of the artery and inflammation of the endothelium of the vein.

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