Explain the difference between a chromosome and chromatin:
Chromatin is the DNA before it coils. Chromosomes are thr coiled DNA
The proteins involved in making chromosomes are called:
Describe the structure of a duplicated chromosome. Include the terms centromere and chromatid:
The centromere is the place at the center to keep the chromatids together. The chromatids are the things that have DNA.
Explain at least 3 differences between a prokaryotic chromosome and a eukaryotic chromosome:
Shape: Prokaryotes:Un-coiled- circular in shape Eukaryotes: Coiled- More complex, coiled up in a rod shape. Number: Prokaryotes: Only 1 Chromosome Eukaryotes: More than one chromosome. Location: Prokaryotes: Chromosome attached to the cell membrane Eukaryotes: Chromosomes found in nucleus
Explain the difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes:
Autosomes are chromosomes that determine traits of the organism. Sex Chromosomes determine the sex of the organisms.
Explain the difference between haploid and diploid:
Haloid: cell contains both sets of chromosomes. Diploid: cell contains one set of chromosomes.
How many human chromosomes are in a diploid cell?
How many human chromosomes are in a haploid cell?
The two copies of each autosome
a photomicrograph of the chromosomes in a normal dividing
cell found in a human.
Explain binary fission:
the division of prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells.
Why would eukaryotic organisms need mitosis?
Mitosis results in new cells with genetic material that is identical to the genetic material of the original cell.
3 Stages of the Cell Cycle are:
Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis
Describe the three stages of interphase. What happens in each?
G1: The first growth stage
S: DNA replicates itself
G2: Last period of growth and prep.
What is the purpose of the G0 phase?
Cell Cycle stops
The cell cycle is controlled at three checkpoints. Describe each of them, including when they occur in the cell cycle:
1. At the G1 checkpont it makes sure the cell is at a suitable size.
2. DNA synthesis G2 Checkpont. If correct protiens enter mitosis
3. Mitosis check pint gives the clear for the cell to divide.
How does cytokinesis differ in plant cells and animal cells?
In plants, a new cell wall forms, vesicles line up and form a cell plate. In animals, the cleavage furrow forms.
Explain what could happen if the process of mitosis was not regulated correctly:
The cell could mutate causing rapid cell reproduction or cancer.
rod-shaped structures made of DNA and proteins
DNA in eukaryotic cells wraps tightly around proteins
Each half of the chromosome
The two chromatids of a chromosome are attached at a point
The less tightly coiled DNA-protein complex
chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism, and they may also carry genes for other characteristics.
All of the other chromosomes in an organism
the production of offspring from one parent.
occurs in the formation of gametes
haploid reproductive cells.
first phase of mitosis, begins with the shortening and tight coiling of DNA into rod-shaped chromosomes that can be seen with a light microscope.
the second phase of mitosis. During metaphase, chromosomes are easier to identify by using a microscope than during other phases
made of microtubules radiate from the centrosomes in preparation for metaphase.
the chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and slowly move, centromere first, toward opposite poles of the dividing cell
After the chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell, the
spindle fibers disassemble, and the chromosomes return to a
less tightly coiled chromatin state
In plant cells, vesicles from the Golgi apparatus join together at the midline of the dividing cell