Collective Behavior

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Chapter 1-3 test

Which of the following is the least likely to be the focus of studies using the SBI perspective

the political attitudes and socioeconomic attributes of participants in protest movements.

According to LeBon, the crowd transforms people, making them highly suggestible, emotional, and irrational. He referrs to this effect as

contagious mental unity.

According to Herbert Blumer, the crowd influenced people primarily through:

milling and circular reaction.

Harvey, Wanda, and her cousin Jeffery are waiting at the airport terminal depature gate when they see a group of 15 people begin to dance and play music. They decide to join the festivity. McPhail would likely classify this event as an example of:

convergent clustering

According to Orin E. Klapp, mass hysterias can have a positive effect on society because they:

serve as a "safety valve" for releasing accumulated tensions.

McPhail's typology classifies gathering according to their behavioral composition. In which category of gatherings would behavior be most highly formalized?

ceremonial gatherings.

According to Turner and Killiam, the concerned crowd participant is:

likely to follow the suggestions of others.

According to Smelser's value

added model of collective behavior, relatively large-scale events which cluster in time and within certain parts of the social structure are referred to as: - collective episodes.

According to Herbert Blumer, a group composed of anonymous members from many social strata that acts on the basis of each individuals seeking his/her own particular needs is a:

mass

The Paris Commune of 1871, which inspired the writings of Gustave LeBon, was:

a self-determined government by the people of Paris which was brutally crushed by national troops.

Which of the following is a cue to conduct?

A policemen's gesture for controlling vehicle traffic.

The use of the term "collective action" implies that the behavior in question is:

purposive and directed toward reasonable objectives.

The term "collective action" differs from the term "collective behavior" in the "collective action" implies:

purposive, goal oriented behavior.

Park and Burgess used the term ___________ to describe the underlying character of collective behavior, which was similar to hypnosis.

collective impulse

According to Turner and Killian, emergent responses to new or ambiguous situations involve people collectively defining problems and:

clarifying expectation for appropriate conduct.

The efforts of parents and other groups to censor or restrict pornography on the Internet illustrates which of the following views on collective behavior/action?

an adaptive response to social ambiguity

The term "collective behavior" was first used:

by Robert Park and Ernest Burgess in "Introduction to the Science of Sociology".

One of the six major interests within the field of collective behavior identified by Gary Marx is an interest in mass or undifferentiated groups. An example of an undifferentiated group is:

people who purchase personal computers each year.

By using the term "collective action", writers such as Tilly and Simon sought to avoid the implication that social movements were:

based on mass excitement and hysterical or irrational belief(s).

Two tremendous forces of social change were unleashed during the eighteenth century that also gave rise to the idea of collective behavior. These forces were the Industrial Revolution and :

the rise of popular democracy

The field of collective behavior:

may have more diverse contents than any other field of sociology

The Disaster Research Center (now at the University of Delaware) carries out many functions, including training students in disaster research and:

maintaining a library of disaster-related research.

Gamson and his colleagues studied challenges to unjust authority. In his study, the authority was unjust in the sense that the MHRC coordinator asked subjects to:

commit perjury.

One of the persistent problems encountered by researchers in the study of riots is:

determining who was or who wasn't a riot participant

In Mintz's study of nonadaptive group behavior, which of the following experimental conditions were most likely to result in jam ups in the neck of the bottle?

little or no opportunity for planning and organization.

Which of the following research methods did Lofland use in his study of the Doomsday Cult?

participant observation

McPhail and teams of graduate students from the University of South Carolina developed procedures for observing crowds, using paper and-pencil recording techniques. Their first observations were of crowds

at shopping malls and air terminals

The primary focus of most riot participation studies has been:

identification of personality characteristics which dispose people to participate in riots.

Of the hundreds of socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes, and opinions that were measured with post riot surveys during the 1960s, the best predictors of riot preparation were:

- age, race, and gender.

As potential sources of scientific data, news videos of public demonstrations and collective action:

tend to focus on human-interest events and are thus unrepresentative of the whole event.

Rude's study of the French revolution was based on:

police records, surveys conducted by the revolutionary government, wage and price statistics, and pension lists.

Sociologists often cite Charles McKay's description of the seventeenth century "tulip mania" in Holland as an example of mass hysteria. Upon examination, McKay devotes most of this account to:

describing instances where people ate or otherwise ruined tulip bulbs, mistaking them for onions

In the past, three problems have hindered the study of collective behavior. These problems are studying unanticipated events, finding ways to study collective behavior under controlled conditions, and:

studying the crowd.

Gamson's approach to the use of historical material to test theories of collective behavior was designed:

to obtain information about a representative sample of challenging groups.

Beginning in the late 1960s, Clark McPhail sent teams of graduate students into the field to observe and record people's and initially found that:

no two records were alike, even though observers had attempted to describe the same people and activities.

Studies by the Disaster Research Center show that people will submit to interviews and fill out questionnaires in disaster situations. The work of Quarantelli and Hundley (1975) shows that people will agree to be interviewed and fill out questionnaires

during campus riots and athletic victory celebrations.

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