False assumption that is a result from jumping to conclusions about a group or issue based on too little evidence (stereotypes)
ex: All women are bad drivers.
Italian soccer players are all prima donnas.
Attack against a person. A false assumption used for personal attacks on individuals instead of issues.
Begging the Question (Circular Reasoning)
The conclusion simply repeats or rephrases the beginning assumption where nothing is truly proved.
Polarization (Either Or, Black White)
One-side reasoning that is often highly emotional and offers no alternative action nor any consideration of the middle ground
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc (After This, Therefore Because of This, Cause and Effect)
Contains a misplaced cause or effect. Just because the one thing takes place first and another follows does not necessarily mean the first caused the second to occur. Also faulty reasoning because it does not state the possibility of other causes or effects
Everyone is doing it
Appeals Based on Biased or Incompetent Authority
Authority is not knowledgable in that particular subject
False Analogy (Illogical Comparisons)
Misleading and deceptive. Bases comparison on trivial similarities that ignore the fundamental differences
Avoid unpleasant realities