UPPER GI TRACT

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is legume protein complete?

it is incomplete and lacks cysteine and methionone

What are legumes high in?

High in Soluble fiber: pectins, gums and cleans the gut and toxins

What indigestable sugars do legumes have?

the sugars are raffinose and stachyose which are fermented by the gut and create gas

What is digestion?

The mechanical and chemical break down of foods

What is assimilation?

The absorption and use of foods

Where is the immunity in the body?

70% of the immune system is in the gut

Define Elimination

The removal of food residue via the large intestine

Define maintaing ecological balance

Good flora predominating bad flora is needed

List the 5 functions of the digestive system

Digestion, assimilation, eliminatiom, immunity, maintaing ecological balance

What are the 3 parts of the immune system?

Physical barrier, chemical barrier, Immunological barrier

What are the physical barriers?

the endothelium, tight villi junctions, peristalsis

What are the chemical barriers?

HCL (highly acidic, immune chemicals in saliva

What are the immunological barriers?

GALT, secretory IgA, peyers patch (act like police slows things down and burns waste

What is the food transit (tt) in mouth?

1 minute

What is the food tt in esophagus for liquids and solids?

liquids = 2-3 seconds
solids = 4-8 seconds

What is the tt for stomach?

2-4 hrs

What is the tt for small intestine?

1-4 hours (want it to be slow)

What is the tt for large intestine?

10 hrs to 3 days (here is where bacteria acts on food)

What should the total tt be?

18-24hrs (want it to be slow)

What is the fast tt considered to be?

12 hrs

name the PH order for the body

mouth & esophogus-alkaline
Stomach -acid
small intestine-alkaline
colon- acid

in the mouth what does salivary amylase run at (PH) does is the mouth?

7-7.2, slightly alkaline

where are microbes killed and mineralized ionized? and is it alkaline or acid?

stomach because protein digestion needs acid

In small intestine what is the ph and why?

the ph is best at slight alkalinity b/c pancreatic enzymes function best

What are the 2 main functions of digestion?

to break down foods, and to either use these molecules as is or store them away for future use or use them to build new tissue

Whats the GI tract also known as?

the alimentary canal

how long is the entire GI tract?

30 ft long

what is the GI tract designed for

to transport food & water, to modify food, and make it available for absorption and excretion

what are the storage sites along the way?

excretion sites, & detoxifying sites

What is the first phase of the digestion?

The cephalic phase-begins in the brain

When we see, smell, or think of food what does the brain do?

sends a signal up to the vegus nerve and the digestive system awakens

up to blank of what perceive as taste is do to what?

70%, smell

what is the largest muscle in the mouth?

tongue

parts of the tongue in terms of digistion is called?

papillae

what is the actual taste receptor called of the taste bud?

microvilli

what groups are taste buds composed of?

40 column-shaped cells bundled together along their long axis

what are the five tastes?

savory, sweet, sour, bitter, pungent

umami is the from the taste of?

glutamate in savory foodsa-recognized as the a "unique" taste

umami has been concentrated as a food additive to what?

msg-confuses our system and allows our bodies to consume glutamate in a lot higher levels then our bodies were ever designed to handle-produces highly disruptive effects in people

what are the big three tastes?

sweet, bitter, unami

which taste is the most sensitive?

bitter

namer 5 bitter foods

coffee, unsweetened chocolate, citrus peel, olives, bitter melon, beer, bitters

what organ is bitter taste stimulating to?

liver

Every time you taste bitter your liver gets a positive jolt to do what?

it stimulates the liver to put out more bile and get rid of accumulated waste

what happens if your liver never tastes bitter?

liver becomes sluggish over time and and retains toxic build-up

many liver detoxifying formulas contain what?

milk thistle seed, dandelion root, yellow dock and gentian root

name the 3 pairs of salivary glands

partoid, glands, sub mandibular glands, sub lingual glands

where are the 3 glands located?

-Parietal in cheek by ears
-sub mandibular in floor of mouth under jaw-bone
-sub lingual in floor of mouth under tongue

name 5 key functions of saliva

-moistens food for swallowing
-moistens the mucus membrane
-lubricates the esophogus for swallowing
-washes mouth
-kills bacteria
-dilutes poisnous substances
-contains enzymes that begin the digestion process

how much saliva does you body produce a day?

1-1.5 liters a day

what % of saliva is water?

99% and almost all reabsorbed in the digestive tract

what % is not water and what enzymes does it contain?

0.05% isnt water.
The enzymes are lysomes, ligual lipase, salivary amylase

what other name does salivary amylase go by?

ptylin

what does the enzyme lysozyme do?

kills bacteria in the mouth

what does the enzyme lingual lipase do?

breaks fat down into more easily digestible fatty acids and monoglycerides

what doe salivary amylase (ptyalin) do?

begins the break down of carbohydrates in the mouth

name 3 reasons why chewing well is important

1. slows down the eating process and spreads out the glycemic response.
2. it allows the amylase to effectively start breaking down the carbohydrates, which takes a burden of the pancreas
3. allows time for stomach to signal brain that your full-takes 20 min

what is the wad that results from chewing and mixed with saliva called?

bolus

is the stage of swallowing involuntary or voluntary?

voluntary

what does the tongue do to the bolus?

moves food upward and backward

when does the stages change from voluntary to involuntary?

when the food is moved to the back of the throat

what is the job of the esophagus?

to move food from the esophagus into the stomach

do digestion or absorption of nutrients take place in the esophagus?

no

what is the name of the muscle that is locates at the end of the esohagus and just above the diaphram near the heart?

esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter

what does the cardiac sphincter do?

allows food to enter stomach and prevents stomach acids from refulxing back into the esophagus

what happens of esophogeal sphicter fails?

gerd which can cause inflammation, and scarring and possible cancer

what condition can aggravate acid reflux?

hiatl hernia

what shape is the stomach and how much food can it hold and where is it located?

"J" shape and sits below the diaphram it can expand to hopd 1/2 gallon or 1-4 litres of food

whats the stomachs function?

to mix, digest, and parcel out its contents in a slow controlled manner

whats the name of the bolus once its starts mixing with enzymes and acid?

a liquid called chyme

what are the 4 main functional divisions of the stomach?

cardia, fundus, body, antrum

what is the cardia?

small space at the enterence of the stomach

what happens in the fundus?

its the main upper portion of the stoamch. food gets mixed and held in fundus and its where enzymatic digestion starts.

where in the stomach does the hormone ghrelin get manufactured?

in the fundus and it stimulates hunger

what hormone is the opposite of ghrelin?

Leptin-produced by fatty tissue which induces satiating (being full)

What is the "body"?

the large middle section of the stomch

which part of the stomach is a prime area of digestion?

the "body"

what happens in the body?

HCL and Pepsin break down proteins at levels strong enough to stop enzamatic digestion

What is the last part of the stomach called and what does it mean?

Antrum and it means cave

Is food held in antrum a long time?

yes, the major portion of digestion happens here, then parceled out slowly

After the antrum where does the chyme go?

thru the pylrus sphincter into the duedenum (SI)

what does pylorus mean?

gate keeper

what are the 3 layers of of muscles the stomach?

longitudinal, circular, oblique

what do the muscles of the stomach do?

it allows the stomach to bend, twist and fold

What are the motions in the stomach known as?

ruggae

ruggae allows the stomach to do what?

mix the chyme with any digestive juices or enzymes that are present

what are the 5 types of cells that line the stomach cavity?

epithelial, mucosa, parietal, chief, enteroendocrine

what does the epithelial cells do?

epithelial cells cover the surface of the stomach and line the gastric pits

what does the mucosa cells do?

mucosa cells are the most numerous in stomach. Acts a s a hormone producing glycoprotein which is slippery and coats everything. Prevents the stomach from autodigestion by keeping stomach juices from touching anything. any defects in glycoprotein covering will lead to ulcers, erosions and autodigestion of stomach wall

What does the parietal cells do?

parietal cells produce HCL and intrinsic facto, which helps absorb vitamin B-12. located in the fundus and body of the stomach

What do the chief cells do?

chief cells produce pepsinogen a precursor to pepsin and gastric liapase which is a fat-digesting enzyme

what do the enteroendoctrine cells do?

they produce the hormone gastrin in the antrum. Gastrin is secreted in the blood and makes it way back to the fundus and body to stimulate the pareital to produce more HCL. The distention of the antrum and any rise in PH will signal receptors that the chyme has become too diluted

in the stomach the digestive process is both?

chemical and mechanical

what happens during mechanical digestion?

waves of peristalsis mix food with the chemical secreted from the parietal cells and chief cells

what do the rugae do?

the folds or rugae force the chiam to roll over and churn as their muscular contractions squeeze the chyme until its ready to pass thru the pyloric sphincter

what happens in chemical digestion?

HCL and pepsin from the parietal cellsand chief cells break down food into smaller molecules to be used and absobed

do pareital cells secrete high levels of hcl or low levels?

high levels of hcl so the proteins can be denetured (unfolded) and broken down by pepsin during digestion

name 6 hcl function

-denentures proteins
-kills many microorganisms
-stimulates the flow of hormones, bile and pancreatic juices
-inhibits the hormone gastrin-as hcl builds up it signals that less gastrin be produced leading to the stopping of hcl production. This is how the body prevents over production of stomach acid
_seperates minerals from food. zinc iron and calcium are effected by low acid levels
-hcl in chyme stimulates secretin and cck.

what does secretin do?

Regulate the ph in the intestinal

what does cck do?

regulates the flow of bile and pancreatic enzymes and prepares SI for the chyme

what ph is stomach acid (hcl)

0.8-1.0 -battery acid

What will the ph be in the stomach when it starts mixing with food?

2.0-3.5- a ph your stomach will try to maintain for proper digestion

how long does the rise and fall of ph last in the stomach? what is this phase called

this phase is called the gastris phase and it lasts 3-4 hours

what is the primary problem of not having sufficient enzygmatic digestion in the cardia and fundus?

the more acid hcl will have to be produced in the body and antrum. then the higher levels off cck and more pancreatic enzymes your will have to produce and more bile from liver

Which cells of the stomach secrete Pepsinogen?

chief cells

Pepsinogen is inactive until what?

until its converted onto pepsin by HCL in the stomach

What is pepsin?

its a extremely powerful protein digestive enzyme

What PH will turn pepsinogen to pepsin?

A very low PH (high acid)

What does pepsin do?

Its digests proteins, and breaks the bonds of proteins to create smaller chains of amino acids known as peptides

What is pepsinogen's job?

it signals the esophegial sphincter to close down, so stomach acid doesnt go back to the esophogus

What does pepsinogen also do to the pyloric sphincter?

It tells the pyloric sphincter to open, allowing the food to exit the stomach and go to the duodenum

What else do chief cells secrete?

Chief cells also secrete gastric liapase

What is gastric liapase?

Gastric liapase is a fat digesting enzyme that breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids and monglycerides-these forms of fat are useable by your body

What Ph is gastric liapase active?

ph of 4-6, its roll is limited until it enters the duodenum and the ph rises to 6

what 3 events does the acidic chyme trigger in the stomach?

1. chyme sends impulses to brain that then signals down the vagus nerve to stop producing stomach acid
2. b/c of distention from a meal the nerve stimulation tells stomach to stop producing gastric juices
3.high acid of chyme cause the pyloric sphincter to close-so no more food enters the duodenum-more chyme that goes intot the duedeum the more the intestines will say slow down

how long do carbs move thru the stomach?

remain for the shortest time

how long does protein remain in stomach?

intermediate time

how long do fats stay in the stomach?

longest time

what would be the best combo of elements to have the longest sense of satiety?

protein, fat and carbs and small meals throughout the day send signals to brain that the body is satisfied

what do large meals do to the stomach

they strect the stomac which will collapse after emptying, but hunger will be crazy leading to habitual over eating

what is the largest organ in the body and how many functions can it preform?

the liver and over 200

how heavy is the liver and what space does it occupy?

200 pounds and occupys the roght upper quadrant beneath the diaphram

name 6 vital roles of the liver

regulating, synthesizing, storing, secreting, transforming, breaking down many different things in body

what can a damaged liver do?

it can regenerate up to 75% of itself and grow new tissue faster then any cancer

how does blood supply get to the liver?

by the hepatic artery and portal vein

where do all subsatnces that are absorbed in the SI travel first?

to the liver for processing before traveling got the heart

what does the liver continuously creates?

bile

what does bile do?

it emulsifys dietary fat

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