What indigestable sugars do legumes have?
the sugars are raffinose and stachyose which are fermented by the gut and create gas
List the 5 functions of the digestive system
Digestion, assimilation, eliminatiom, immunity, maintaing ecological balance
What are the 3 parts of the immune system?
Physical barrier, chemical barrier, Immunological barrier
What are the immunological barriers?
GALT, secretory IgA, peyers patch (act like police slows things down and burns waste
name the PH order for the body
mouth & esophogus-alkaline
where are microbes killed and mineralized ionized? and is it alkaline or acid?
stomach because protein digestion needs acid
In small intestine what is the ph and why?
the ph is best at slight alkalinity b/c pancreatic enzymes function best
What are the 2 main functions of digestion?
to break down foods, and to either use these molecules as is or store them away for future use or use them to build new tissue
what is the GI tract designed for
to transport food & water, to modify food, and make it available for absorption and excretion
When we see, smell, or think of food what does the brain do?
sends a signal up to the vegus nerve and the digestive system awakens
what groups are taste buds composed of?
40 column-shaped cells bundled together along their long axis
umami has been concentrated as a food additive to what?
msg-confuses our system and allows our bodies to consume glutamate in a lot higher levels then our bodies were ever designed to handle-produces highly disruptive effects in people
namer 5 bitter foods
coffee, unsweetened chocolate, citrus peel, olives, bitter melon, beer, bitters
Every time you taste bitter your liver gets a positive jolt to do what?
it stimulates the liver to put out more bile and get rid of accumulated waste
what happens if your liver never tastes bitter?
liver becomes sluggish over time and and retains toxic build-up
many liver detoxifying formulas contain what?
milk thistle seed, dandelion root, yellow dock and gentian root
where are the 3 glands located?
-Parietal in cheek by ears
-sub mandibular in floor of mouth under jaw-bone
-sub lingual in floor of mouth under tongue
name 5 key functions of saliva
-moistens food for swallowing
-moistens the mucus membrane
-lubricates the esophogus for swallowing
-dilutes poisnous substances
-contains enzymes that begin the digestion process
what % is not water and what enzymes does it contain?
0.05% isnt water.
The enzymes are lysomes, ligual lipase, salivary amylase
what does the enzyme lingual lipase do?
breaks fat down into more easily digestible fatty acids and monoglycerides
name 3 reasons why chewing well is important
1. slows down the eating process and spreads out the glycemic response.
2. it allows the amylase to effectively start breaking down the carbohydrates, which takes a burden of the pancreas
3. allows time for stomach to signal brain that your full-takes 20 min
when does the stages change from voluntary to involuntary?
when the food is moved to the back of the throat
what is the name of the muscle that is locates at the end of the esohagus and just above the diaphram near the heart?
esophageal sphincter or cardiac sphincter
what does the cardiac sphincter do?
allows food to enter stomach and prevents stomach acids from refulxing back into the esophagus
what happens of esophogeal sphicter fails?
gerd which can cause inflammation, and scarring and possible cancer
what shape is the stomach and how much food can it hold and where is it located?
"J" shape and sits below the diaphram it can expand to hopd 1/2 gallon or 1-4 litres of food
whats the stomachs function?
to mix, digest, and parcel out its contents in a slow controlled manner
what happens in the fundus?
its the main upper portion of the stoamch. food gets mixed and held in fundus and its where enzymatic digestion starts.
where in the stomach does the hormone ghrelin get manufactured?
in the fundus and it stimulates hunger
what hormone is the opposite of ghrelin?
Leptin-produced by fatty tissue which induces satiating (being full)
what happens in the body?
HCL and Pepsin break down proteins at levels strong enough to stop enzamatic digestion
Is food held in antrum a long time?
yes, the major portion of digestion happens here, then parceled out slowly
ruggae allows the stomach to do what?
mix the chyme with any digestive juices or enzymes that are present
what are the 5 types of cells that line the stomach cavity?
epithelial, mucosa, parietal, chief, enteroendocrine
what does the epithelial cells do?
epithelial cells cover the surface of the stomach and line the gastric pits
what does the mucosa cells do?
mucosa cells are the most numerous in stomach. Acts a s a hormone producing glycoprotein which is slippery and coats everything. Prevents the stomach from autodigestion by keeping stomach juices from touching anything. any defects in glycoprotein covering will lead to ulcers, erosions and autodigestion of stomach wall
What does the parietal cells do?
parietal cells produce HCL and intrinsic facto, which helps absorb vitamin B-12. located in the fundus and body of the stomach
What do the chief cells do?
chief cells produce pepsinogen a precursor to pepsin and gastric liapase which is a fat-digesting enzyme
what do the enteroendoctrine cells do?
they produce the hormone gastrin in the antrum. Gastrin is secreted in the blood and makes it way back to the fundus and body to stimulate the pareital to produce more HCL. The distention of the antrum and any rise in PH will signal receptors that the chyme has become too diluted
what happens during mechanical digestion?
waves of peristalsis mix food with the chemical secreted from the parietal cells and chief cells
what do the rugae do?
the folds or rugae force the chiam to roll over and churn as their muscular contractions squeeze the chyme until its ready to pass thru the pyloric sphincter
what happens in chemical digestion?
HCL and pepsin from the parietal cellsand chief cells break down food into smaller molecules to be used and absobed
do pareital cells secrete high levels of hcl or low levels?
high levels of hcl so the proteins can be denetured (unfolded) and broken down by pepsin during digestion
name 6 hcl function
-kills many microorganisms
-stimulates the flow of hormones, bile and pancreatic juices
-inhibits the hormone gastrin-as hcl builds up it signals that less gastrin be produced leading to the stopping of hcl production. This is how the body prevents over production of stomach acid
_seperates minerals from food. zinc iron and calcium are effected by low acid levels
-hcl in chyme stimulates secretin and cck.
What will the ph be in the stomach when it starts mixing with food?
2.0-3.5- a ph your stomach will try to maintain for proper digestion
how long does the rise and fall of ph last in the stomach? what is this phase called
this phase is called the gastris phase and it lasts 3-4 hours
what is the primary problem of not having sufficient enzygmatic digestion in the cardia and fundus?
the more acid hcl will have to be produced in the body and antrum. then the higher levels off cck and more pancreatic enzymes your will have to produce and more bile from liver
What does pepsin do?
Its digests proteins, and breaks the bonds of proteins to create smaller chains of amino acids known as peptides
What is pepsinogen's job?
it signals the esophegial sphincter to close down, so stomach acid doesnt go back to the esophogus
What does pepsinogen also do to the pyloric sphincter?
It tells the pyloric sphincter to open, allowing the food to exit the stomach and go to the duodenum
What is gastric liapase?
Gastric liapase is a fat digesting enzyme that breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids and monglycerides-these forms of fat are useable by your body
What Ph is gastric liapase active?
ph of 4-6, its roll is limited until it enters the duodenum and the ph rises to 6
what 3 events does the acidic chyme trigger in the stomach?
1. chyme sends impulses to brain that then signals down the vagus nerve to stop producing stomach acid
2. b/c of distention from a meal the nerve stimulation tells stomach to stop producing gastric juices
3.high acid of chyme cause the pyloric sphincter to close-so no more food enters the duodenum-more chyme that goes intot the duedeum the more the intestines will say slow down
what would be the best combo of elements to have the longest sense of satiety?
protein, fat and carbs and small meals throughout the day send signals to brain that the body is satisfied
what do large meals do to the stomach
they strect the stomac which will collapse after emptying, but hunger will be crazy leading to habitual over eating
how heavy is the liver and what space does it occupy?
200 pounds and occupys the roght upper quadrant beneath the diaphram
name 6 vital roles of the liver
regulating, synthesizing, storing, secreting, transforming, breaking down many different things in body
what can a damaged liver do?
it can regenerate up to 75% of itself and grow new tissue faster then any cancer
where do all subsatnces that are absorbed in the SI travel first?
to the liver for processing before traveling got the heart