7th Grade Science - Cells / Eukaryotic Cells

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Cell wall

A rigid structure that gives support to a cell

Cellulose

The cell wall of most plants and algae is made of this.

Chitin

The cell wall of some fungi is made of this.

Cell membrane

The protective phospholid barrier that covers a cell's surface and encloses a cell.

Lipids

A group of compounds that do not dissolve in water.

Hydrophobic

water fearing

hydrophilic

water-loving

Hydrophilic heads

the heads of phospholipids that are are attracted to water

Cytoskeleton

This helps a cell retain its' shape and move in its environment.

Nucleus

Large organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains DNA.

Double membrane

what the nucleus is enclosed in

ribosomes

small round structures that make proteins

Smallest of all organelles

ribosomes

Endoplasmic reticulum

a system of folded internal membrane in which proteins, lipids and other materials are constructed

Rough ER

This is usually found near the nucleus. they have ribosomes.

Smooth ER

This is the ER which lacks ribosomes.

Mitochondrion

This is the main power source of a cell. It is surrouned by two membranes and is the site of cellular respiration.

ATP

Energy released by mitochondria is stored in this substance.

Inner membrane of a cell's mitochondria

Where most ATP is made.

Chloroplasts

They harness and use the energy of the sun to make sugar.

Chlorophyll

This is a green pigment.

Golgi complex

organelle that packages, and distributions proteins out of the cell.

vesicle

a small cavity of sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell. They also move material within a cell.

Lysosomes

A cell organelle that contains digestvie enzymes.

Vacuole

The organelle that stores water and other materials. It also stores enzymes.

Cell

Smallest unit that can perform all processes necessary for life

Robert Hooke

Looked at cork cells (cell walls) and coined the word cell in 1665.

Anton van Leeuwenhook

Discovered one-celled organisms (which he called animalacules) after looking at pond water under a microscope.

Theodor Schwann

Discovered all animals are made of cells. Wrote cell theory

cell theory

This states that all organisms are made up of one or more cells, the cell is the basic unit of life, new cells could be produced only from the division of existing cells.

Rudolf Virchow

Concluded that new cells could be produced only from the division of existing cells

organelle

one of the small bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell and that are specialized to perform a specific function.

nucleus

In a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction

Example of big cell

Yolk of an egg

surface area to volume ratio

Ratio of a cell's outside area to its internal volume.

Nutrients for a chick

White and yolk of a chicken egg.

If surface area is 24 and volume is 8, what is the surface area to volume ratio.

3

If surface area is 24 and volume is 6, what is the surface area to volume ratio.

4

If surface area is 30 and volume is 6, what is the surface area to volume ratio.

5

If surface area is 20 and volume is 5, what is the surface area to volume ratio.

4

If surface area is 32 and volume is 4, what is the surface area to volume ratio.

8

If surface area is 40 and volume is 5, what is the surface area to volume ratio.

8

If surface area is 25 and volume is 5, what is the surface area to volume ratio.

5

If surface area is 40 and volume is 10, what is the surface area to volume ratio.

4

prokaryote

A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. They are classified as archaebacteria and eubateria.

eukaryotic cell

cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

archaebacteria

bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen

Flagellum

a long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move

three types of archaebacteria

heat-loving, salt-loving, methane-making.

extremophiles

organisms that live in extreme environments like heat-loving and salt-loving creatures

Multicellular

This means many cells

When cells were discovered

1600's

Instrument that helped cells be discovered

Microscopes

Why cells are small

A cell's surface area to volume ratio limits the size of the cells.

Two basic kinds of cells

prokaryote cells and eukaryotic cells

eukaryotes

They can be single celled or multi-celled organisms.

eubateria

"true" bacteria, can cause diseases. This and archaebacteria are prokaryote cells.

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