Neuro Mnemonics

11 terms by vmiccio

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FC from my neurology clerkship

Acute Ataxia

UNABLE TO STAND

Underlying weakness
Nutritional deficiency (vit B12)
Arteritis/vasculitis
Basilar migraine
Labrynthitis
Encephalitis/infection

Trauma (post-concussive)
Other (rare metabolic, genetic)

Stroke
Toxins (drugs, toluene, mercury)
Alcohol
Neoplasm
Demyelination (Miller Fisher, Guillain Barre, MS)

Altered Mental Status

I WATCH DEATH

Infection
Withdrawal
Acute metabolic
Trauma
CNS pathology
Hypoxia

Deficiencies
Endocrinopathies
Acute vascular
Toxins
Heavy metals

Autosomal dominant forms of ataxia

von Hippel-Lindau
olivopontocerebellar atrophy
Machado-Joseph

Cerebellar vs. sensory ataxia

See more dysdiadochokinesia and dysmetria with cerebellar. Also hypotonia. Unilateral suggests a focal lesion, bilateral is more likely due to diffuse causes
(drug, alcohol, paraneoplastic)

See more sensory, proprioceptive, and vibratory deficits with sensory.
(Vit B12 def, tabes dorsalis)

Chronic Ataxia

CAN'T STAND

Congenital (Chiari
Autosomal recessive
Nutritional deficiencies
Trauma (post concussive)

Stroke sequelae
Toxins (drugs, toluene, alcohol)
Autosomal dominant
Neoplasm/paraneoplastic syndromes)
Demyelinating (MS)

Metabolic diseases presenting with recurrent or progressive ataxias

maple syrup urine disease,
Ataxia telangiectasia
Friedreich ataxia

Seizure

I CONVULSE BIG TIME

Infection

Cocaine/drugs
Oxygen lack/ischemia/hypoxia
Neoplasm
Vascular malformation
Uremia
Lytes (hypoNa, hypoMg, hypoCa)
Sinus thrombosis
Ethanol withdrawal

Bleed/hemorrhage
Idiopathic
Glucose lack/hypoglycemia

Trauma
Inborn error of metabolism
Medications
Eclampsia

Things to include in the history-taking of a seizure

premonitory symptoms
focal motor activity during the sz
was the motor activity rhythmic and synchronous
the presence and direction of eye deviation
respiratory pattern
was he able to respond to verbal stimulus
bit tongue
incontinence
post ictal? for how long?

Types of Ataxia

Can't Stand Very Well

Cerebellar
Sensory
Vestibular
Weakness

Weakness Mnemonic

G, I'M LIMP, CAN'T STAND

Guillain-Barre

Iatrogenic (paralytics, aminoglycosides, steroids)
Myopathy/myositis

Lou Gehrig's disease (ALS, motor neuron disease, usually gradual)
Infection (Polio, botulism)
Myelopathy (acute)
Periodic paralysis, porphyria, paraproteinemia

Cushing's
Arteritis/vasculitis/stroke
Neoplastic(meningitis, paraneoplastic)
Toxins (lead, arsenic, pufferfish, tick paralysis)

Systemic illness (anemia)
Thyroid
Addison's
Neuromuscular junction disease
Diabetic amyotrophy

What is a postive Romberg sign? What does it indicate?

The inability to balance with eyes closed. It indicates problems with proprioception.

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