conquered Ceuta in North Africa; founded navigation school in Portugal
What were Prince *HENRY's contributions to Portugal?
treaty between Spain and Portugal, agreed to imaginary line dividing Spanish and Portuguese land
What was the purpose of the Treaty of Tordesillas?
Chinese scholar-officials complained waste of valuable resources
Why were Zheng He's voyages stopped?
Only gov. conduct foreign trade through 3 ports (but really smuggling flourished); Chinese oppose Christianity
How did the Chinese regard with foreign countries interested in trade and religion?
Emperor --> Daimyo(landowners)/Shogon(actual ruler) --> Samurai Warriors (loyal to daimyo/shogoin) --> Peasants/Artisans/Merchants
What is the order of power within Japanese feudalism?
Unified Japan; sole ruler (shogon); moved capital to Edo (later Tokyo); "tamed" the daimyo"; founded "Tokugawa Shogunate" = stability in Japan
What are the achievements of Tokugawa Ieyasu?
kabuki theater (skits about modern urban life); paintings = woodblock prints (show city life); stories of self-made merchants/hardships of life; haiku poetry (images, not ideas)
What was the culture under the Tokugawa Shogunate?
Closed Country Policy (closed Japan from all Euro. customs and ideas)
What was Japanese policy toward European contact?
practice where one government department (monarch/dictator) has total power over the whole country
What is absolutism?
common defense of absolutism; idea that rulers were given right by God to control the whole country
What is "divine right"?
Cardinal Mazarin was true ruler when Louis was a "boy king"; ended 30 Years War (=France most powerful in Europe); increased taxes and strengthened central gov
What was the role of Cardinals during King Louis XIV's rule?
The Palace at Versailles; nobles forced to live and work here, intendants given more power = less power to nobles and more to himself
How did Louis XIV control his nobility?
invaded Spanish Netherlands (gained 12 towns); invaded Dutch Netherlands (gained several towns and region); War of the Spanish Succession (Bourbon dynasty power increases to Spain; other countries feel threatened)
What wars did Louis XIV involve in?
Czar of Russia; created a secret police force (search for wife's "murderer") to kill nobles; took land from boyars (nobles) and gave to people he favored
Who was "Ivan the Terrible"?
Peter I; Czar of Russia; part of Romanov dynasty; reduced power of wealthy land owners and gave more power to low-ranking people; enforced a beard tax; made heavy taxes for his army; westernized Russia
Who was "Peter the Great"?
Line of Russian czars that ruled for 300 years; related to Ivan's wife Anastasia; restored order to Russia
What was the Romanov Dynasty?
James I --> Charles I --> Oliver Cromwell --> Charles II --> James II --> William and Mary
What is the order of the English Monarchy in the 17th century?
ignored Parliament; raised taxes without Parliament's consent; not get along with Puritan members of Parliament; authorized translation "King James Bible"
What occurred during James I's reign of England?
dissolved Parliament when they refused $; Petition of Right signed but ignored; dissolved Parliament; wanted same religion for England; Civil War between Royalists/Cavaliers (Charles's supporters) and Roundheads (Puritan supporters); put on public trial and execution
What occurred during Charles I's reign of England?
(not a monarch)
abolished monarchy and House of Lords; constitution drafted then destroyed = military dictator; crushed Ireland rebellion; promoted Puritan morality and abolished "sinful activities"; welcomed all regions (Jews!) except Catholics
What occurred during Oliver Cromwell's reign of England?
asked by newly formed Parliament to rule; restored monarchy = Restoration; Parliament passed habeas corpus
What occurred during Charles II's reign of England?
offended by appointing Catholics to high office; dissolved Parliament; daughter Mary (married to Protestant William of Orange) asked to overthrow him = Glorious Revolution
What occurred during James II's reign of England?
Glorious Revolution!; recognized Parliament as partner in gov.; constitutional monarchy; Bill of Rights limits royal power; cabinet developed
What occurred during William and Mary's reign of England?
Brahe's assistant; demonstrated Brahe's data through mathematics that planets revolve around sun
Who was Johannes Kepler?
law of pendulum; falling objects accelerates at fixed and predictable rate; dif. weights fall at same speed; builds telescope; supports Copernicus
What were Galileo's discoveries?
trial before Inquisition; church threatens torture = agrees his findings are false; house arrest until death
What happened to Galileo when he contradicted the church?
linked algebra and geometry; everything doubted until proved by reason (helped advance scientific method)
Who was Rene Descartes?
all humans naturally selfish and wicked; gov. job to keep order; people give up some rights to gain order; best gov.: absolute monarchy
What were the main ideas of Thomas Hobbes?
people have natural rights (life, liberty, property); purpose of gov=protect natural rights and failure to do so=people have right to overthrow
What were the main ideas of John Locke?
gov. corrupted people's natural goodness; only good gov=formed by people and guided by will of society
What were the main ideas of Rousseau?
speedy trial; laws for order (not revenge!); against cruel punishment; degree of punishment depends on crime
What were the main ideas of Beccaria?
women need edu. to become useful (doctors, politics, edu=better moms)
What were the main ideas of Mary Wollstonecraft?
French "philosopher"; wrote on reason, nature, happiness, progress, liberty
What was a "Philosophe"?
Colonists upset with: navigation acts, stamp acts, boston tea party, british occupy of Boston; colonists feel less identity with Britain than with colony
What events lead up to the American Revolution?
New constitution ratified: federal system of gov; bill of rights
What were the results of the 1787 Constitutional Convention?
After Oliver Cromwell died, Charles II became king and restored the monarchy. What period is this known as?
Declaration of religious tolerance (Huguenots could live, work, and worship in France)
What was the Edict of Nantes?
ended war between France and Spanish Netherlands (France gained region and several towns)
What was the Treaty of Nijmegen?