Ketone body produced in abnormal amounts in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, when there is excessive fat breakdown in cells.
Pituitary gland hormone that normally stimulates the kidney to decrease production of urine, preventing excess loss of water. Also called vasopressin.
Pertaining to a calyx (cup-shaped collecting chamber in the central portion of the kidney).
Dilation or widening of a calyx. This occurs when urine is backed up in the kidney as in hydronephrosis.
Creatinine clearance test
Measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
Abnormal condition of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland. Patients experience polyuria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst).
Abnormal condition of no insulin or inadequate insulin secretion from the pancreas. This leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and glycosuria (sugar in the urine).
Increased excretion of urine by the kidneys. A diuretic is an agent that increases _______, such as tea, coffee or water.
Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. Examples are sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-).
Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate red blood cell production by bone marrow.
Process by which some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other type of material.
Collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus; also known as Bowman capsule.
Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the cortex of the kidney. As blood flows through each glomerulus, waste materials and other substances are filtered from the bloodstream.
Removal of waste materials (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) from the blood in patients whose kidneys have stopped functioning. Blood leaves the body and circulates through a machine that removes wastes before sending the blood back into the body through a vein.
Depression or hollow in the surface of an organ, such as the kidney and lung. It is the area where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the organ.
Inflammation of the tissue in the kidney that lies between the nephrons (functional units).
Presence of ketones in the urine. Common in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, but can occur in anytime the body begins to break down fatty tissue to provide energy as in starvation.
One of two bean-shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region.
Narrowing of the meatus (opening) leading from the urethra to the outside of the body.
An opening or passageway. The urinary _______ is the opening of the urethra to the outside of the body and the auditory meatus is the opening of the ear to the outside of the body.
Functional unit of the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus, renal tubule, and collecting tubule.
Group of symptoms that occur due to loss of protein in the urine. Symptoms include edema (swelling of tissues), hypoalbuminemia (loss of protein from the blood), heavy proteinuria, and infection. This condition is also known as nephrosis.
Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine: examples are urea, creatinine and uric acid.
Separation of nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream by introducing fluid into the peritoneal cavity. Wastes then leave the bloodstream and enter the fluid, which is drained through an abdominal catheter.
Chemical element that forms salts with other minerals such as calcium and is vital for bodily processes. When dissolved in water, it is an electrolyte whose balance is regulated by the kidney.
Process in the kidney by which the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
Surgical repair of blood vessels in the kidney. Narrowed areas of renal arteries are dilated using an inflatable balloon attached to a catheter.
Severe pain resulting from stones (calculi) in a ureter or in the kidney (renal pelvis).
Condition in which blood is held back from the kidney, often by blockage of renal arteries and arterioles.
A substance (enzyme) synthesized, stored and secreted by the kidney to raise blood pressure. It causes narrowing (constriction) of blood vessels.
X-ray record of the kidney, ureters, and urinary bladder after injection of contrast material through a urinary catheter into the ureters.
Chemical element necessary for cellular functioning. As an electrolyte, its blood and urine levels are regulated by the kidney.
New opening of the ureters to an isolated portion of the ileum that has been removed from its normal location and connected to the outside of the body. It serves as a passageway for urine to leave the body when the urinary bladder is not functioning.
Surgical transplantation of a ureter to a new site in the urinary bladder. This occurs with a kidney transplant.
Nitrogenous waste formed when proteins are used in cells. It is excreted by the kidneys in urine.
Series of tests to evaluate the composition of urine. It includes tests to determine color, appearance, sugar, bacteria, and protein in blood.
Hollow container with muscular walls that holds and stores urine until it is discharged from the body. Urinary catheterization is passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine.
Passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine.
Inability to pass urine, which is held back in the urinary bladder. Urination is the process of expelling urine; micturition; voiding.
X-ray record of the urinary bladder and urethra taken while a patient is urinating and after contrast material is injected retrograde through the urethra.