Med Term- Chapter 8

162 terms by jsdg

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Female Reproductive System

Adnexa uteri

Accessory parts of the uterus; fallopian tubes and ovaries.

Amenorrhea

Absence of menstrual flow.

Amniocentesis

Surgical puncture with a needle to withdraw fluid from within the amniotic sac.

Amnion

Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus.

Amniotic fluid

Fluid contained within the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus.

Anovulatory

Not accompanied by ovulation (release of eggs from the ovary).

Areola

Dark, pigmented area surrounding the breast nipple.

Bartholin glands

Two small mucus-secreting glands near the opening of the vagina to the outside of the body.

Cephalic version

Procedure for turning the fetus so that its head is the presenting part to enter the birth canal first.

Cervix

Necklike, lower portion of the uterus.

Chorion

Outermost membrane surrounding the developing fetus. It forms the fetal part of the placenta.

Chorionic

Pertaining to the chorion.

Clitoris

Sensitive erectile tissue, outside the body in front of the opening of the female urethra.

Coitus

Sexual intercourse.

Colposcopy

Visual examination of the vagina using an endoscope

Corpus luteum

Yellow glandular mass formed by an ovarian follicle that has matured and discharged its ovum. It secretes progesterone to maintain pregnancy.

Cul-de-sac

Region in the lower abdomen between the uterus and the rectum.

Culdocentesis

Surgical (needle) puncture of the cul-de-sac to remove fluid for analysis and diagnosis of disease.

Dysmenorrhea

Painful, difficult menses (menstruation).

Dyspareunia

Painful sexual intercourse.

Dystocia

Difficult childbirth.

Embryo

Stage in prenatal development from two to six weeks.

Endocervicitis

Inflammation of the inner lining of the cervix (lower, necklike portion of the uterus).

Endometritis

Inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus (upper portion).

Endometrium

Inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus.

Episiotomy

Incision of the vulva (perineum) to widen the opening of the vagina during a difficult childbirth.

Estrogen

Ovarian hormone that promotes female secondary sex characteristics and sexual development.

Fallopian tube

One of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus (oviducts or uterine tubes).

Fertilization

Union of the egg (ovum) and sperm cell.

Fetal presentation

Manner in which the fetus enters the birth canal.

Fetus

Stage in prenatal development from 8 to 39 or 40 weeks.

Fimbriae

Finger or fringe-like ends of the fallopian tubes.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell (ovum)

Galactorrhea

Excessive or abnormal secretion of milk after breast-feeding has ended.

Gamete

Reproductive cell (ovum or sperm cell).

Genitalia

Reproductive organs (genitals).

Gestation

Nine-month period during which a fertilized egg cell develops into an infant; pregnancy.

Gonad

Female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones.

Gynecology

Study of the female reproductive organs, including the breasts.

Gynecomastia

Female-like breast enlargement in a male.

Human chorionic gonadotropin

Secreted by the placenta to sustain pregnancy.

Hymen

Mucous membrane partially or completely covering the opening to the vagina.

Hysterectomy

Removal of the uterus.

Hysteroscopy

Visual examination (endoscopic) of the uterus.

Intrauterine device (IUD)

Device inserted by a physician into the uterus to prevent pregnancy.

Involution

Shrinking of the uterus (womb) to its normal size after childbirth.

Labia

Lips of the vagina.

Lactation

Production of milk.

Lactiferous ducts

Tubes that carry milk throughout the breast.

Leukorrhea

White to yellow discharge from the vagina.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Secreted by the pituitary gland to promote ovulation.

Mammary

Pertaining to the breast.

Mammary papilla

Nipple of the breast.

Mammoplasty

Surgical repair of the breast (augmentation or reduction surgery).

Mastectomy

Removal (excision) of a breast.

Mastitis

Inflammation of a breast.

Menarche

Beginning of the first menstrual period (menses).

Menometrorrhagia

Excessive uterine bleeding during menstruation and also between menstrual periods.

Menopause

Gradual ending of menstruation.

Menorrhea

Menstruation; monthly discharge of blood from the lining of the uterus.

Menorrhagia

Abnormally heavy or long menstrual periods.

Menstruation

Monthly shedding of the lining of the uterus; menses.

Metrorrhagia

Bleeding between menstruations.

Multigravida

A woman who has been pregnant more than once.

Multipara

A woman who has delivered more than one viable infant.

Myomectomy

Removal of muscle tumors (fibroids) from the uterus.

Myometrium

Muscle layer of the uterus.

Neonatal

Newborn.

Neonatology

Study of newborns.

Nulligravida

Woman who has not had any pregnancies

Nullipara

A woman who has never given birth to an infant.

Obstetrics

Branch of medicine dealing with the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth.

Oligomenorrhea

Scanty menstrual flow.

Oocyte

Immature ovum

Oogenesis

Formation of ova (egg cells).

Oophorectomy

Removal of an ovary

Oophoritis

Inflammation of an ovary.

Orifice

An opening.

Ovarian

Pertaining to an ovary.

Ovarian follicle

Tiny sac in the ovary that contains an egg cell (ovum).

Ovary

One of two female reproductive organs (gonads) that produce egg cells and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone).

Ovulation

Release of an egg cell from an ovary.

Ovum, ova

Egg cell; plural is ova.

Oxytocia

Rapid labor and childbirth.

Oxytocin

Secretion of the pituitary gland causing contraction of the uterus during labor and stimulation of milk secretion from the breast.

Parturition

Act of giving birth.

Perineorrhaphy

Suture of the perineum (following an episiotomy).

Perineum

Area between the anus and vagina in females and the area between the anus and scrotal sac in males.

Pituitary gland

Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.

Placenta

Vascular organ that develops in the uterine wall during pregnancy.

Pregnancy

Condition of having a developing embryo and fetus in the body for about 40 weeks; gestation.

Prenatal

Pertaining to before birth.

Primigravida

A woman during her first pregnancy.

Primipara

A woman who has given birth to her first child.

Primiparous

Pertaining to a woman who has given birth to her first child.

Progesterone

Hormone secreted by the ovaries; maintains the lining of the uterus during pregnancy.

Pseudocyesis

False pregnancy.

Puberty

Period during which secondary sex characteristics begin to develop and the ability to reproduce begins.

Pyosalpinx

Pus in a fallopian tube.

Retroversion

Tipping backward of an organ or a part of the body; as in the uterus.

Salpingectomy

Removal of a fallopian tube.

Salpingitis

Inflammation of a fallopian tube.

Uterine prolapse

Sagging or falling of the uterus into the vagina

Uterine serosa

Outermost layer surrounding the uterus.

Uterus

Hollow, pear-shaped muscular female organ in which the embryo and fetus develop; womb.

Vagina

Muscular, mucosal tube extending from the uterus (cervix) to the exterior of the body.

Vaginal orifice

Opening of the vagina to the exterior of the body.

Vaginitis

Inflammation of the vagina.

Vulva

External female genitalia; labia, clitoris and vaginal orifice.

Vulvovaginitis

Inflammation of the vulva and vagina.

Zygote

Stage in prenatal development from fertilization and implantation to 2 weeks.

Abortion

Premature ending of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is able to exist on its own.

Abruptio placentae

Premature detachment of the placenta from its place in the uterine wall.

Apgar score

System of scoring an infant's physical condition at 1 and 5 minutes after birth.

Aspiration

Withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with an instrument using suction.

Carcinoma in situ

Cancerous tumor that is localized and has not spread either to nearby tissue or through the lymphatic system or bloodstream.

Carcinoma of the breast

Malignant tumor of breast tissue; breast cancer.

Carcinoma of the cervix

Malignant cells within the cervix (lower portion of the uterus).

Carcinoma of the endometrium

Malignant tumor of the uterus (endometrium).

Cauterization

Destruction of tissue by burning.

Cervical dysplasia

Abnormal cells in the cervix (lower, neck-like region of the uterus).

Cervicitis

Inflammation of the cervix.

Cesarean section

Surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus.

Choriocarcinoma

Malignant tumor of the placenta.

Chorionic villus sampling

Sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis.

Conization

Removal of a cone-shaped section of the cervix.

Cryocauterization

Use of freezing cold temperature to burn and destroy tissue.

Culdocentesis

Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the cul-de-sac.

Cystadenocarcinoma

Malignant tumor containing fluid-filled sacs and glandular tissue; commonly occurring in the ovaries.

Cystadenoma

Benign tumor of cystic and glandular components, commonly found in the ovaries.

Dermoid cysts

Ovarian cysts lined with a variety of cell types (hair, skin, teeth).

Dilatation

Widening and enlargement of a hollow organ.

Dilation and curettage

Widening (dilation) of the cervix and scraping the endometrial lining of the uterus.

Ectopic pregnancy

Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than in the uterus.

Endometriosis

Endometrial tissue located outside of the uterus.

Erythroblastosis fetalis

Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by a blood group incompatibility (Rh factor) between the mother and fetus.

Exenteration

Removal of internal organs. Pelvic __________ is removal of ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, and sections of the intestines.

Fetal monitoring

Continuous recording of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during labor.

Fibrocystic disease

Presence of small sacs of fibrous connective tissue and fluid in the breast.

Fibroids

Benign tumors of fibrous and muscular tissue in the uterus; leiomyomas.

Hyaline membrane disease

Acute lung disease in premature infants; respiratory distress disease syndrome of the newborn.

Hydrocephalus

Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain; in infants, the condition causes enlargement of the head.

Hysterosalpingography

X-ray recording of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material.

In vitro fertilization

Egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body in a laboratory dish (in vitro) to facilitate fertilization. Fertilized ova are then implanted into the uterus through the cervix.

Laparoscopy

Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope.

Leiomyomas

Benign tumors of the uterus; fibroids.

Lumen

Cavity or channel with a tube or tubular organ, as a blood vessel, vagina, or fallopian tube.

Mammography

X-ray recording of the breast.

Meconium aspiration syndrome

Abnormal inhalation of meconium (first stools) by a fetus or newborn.

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