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12th Edition Irving M. Copi

Appeal to Emotion

A fallacy in which the argument relies on emotion rather than reason.

Appeal to Pity

A fallacy in which the argument relies on generosity, altruism, or mercy, rather than reason.

Ad Hominem

A fallacy in which the argument relies on an attack against the person taking a position.

Appeal to Force

A fallacy in which the argument relies on the threat of force; the threat may be veiled.

Irrelevant Conclusion

A fallacy in which the premises support a different conclusion than the one that is proposed.

Argument from Ignorance

A fallacy in which a proposition is held to be true just because it has not been proved false, or false just because it has not been proved true.

Appeal to Inappropriate Authority

A fallacy in which a conclusion is based on the judgement of a supposed authority who has no legitimate claim to expertise in the matter.

False Cause

A fallacy in which something that is not really a cause, is treated as a cause.

Hasty Generalization

A fallacy in which one moves carelessly from individual cases to generalizations.

Fallacy of Accident

A fallacy in which a generalization is wrongly applied to a particular case.

Complex Question

A fallacy in which a question is asked in a way that presupposes the truth of some proposition buried within the question.

Begging the question

A fallacy in which the conclusion is stated or assumed within one of the premises.

Fallacy of Equivocation

A fallacy in which two or more meanings of a work or phrase are used in different parts of an argument.

Fallacy of Amphiboly

A fallacy in which a loose or awkward combination of words can be interpreted more than one way; the argument contains a premise based on one interpretation while the conclusion relies on a different interpretation.

Fallacy of Composition

A fallacy in which an inference is mistakenly drawn from the attributes of the parts of a whole, to the attributes of the whole.

Fallacy of Division

A fallacy in which a mistaken inference is drawn from the attributes of a whole to the attributes of the parts of the whole.

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