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Drug Standards in Pharmacology

Drug Standards/ References

Law requires that all preparations called by the same drug name must be uniform strength, quality, and purity. This ensures that the patient will obtain the same quality, purity, and strength of medication from the pharmacy each time it it prescibed with the United States

Hospital Formulary

is a reference listing of all the drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy. This reference provides information about the characteristics of drugs and their clinical usage. This information is continuously revised to provide the most up to date information available.

Physician's Desk Reference (PDR)

is published yearly by Thomson PDR, in cooperation with participating manufacturers. Manufactures pay to list their information in the PDR; it is the same information listed inthe pharmacy package inserts

Chemical Name

Specifies the chemical makeup of the drug. This is often and complicated

Generic Name

Identifies the drug legally and scientifically. ALOT shorter than the chemical name. The generic name is owned by the original manufacters after 17 years it becomes public property Generics are usually are written in lower case

BRANDNAME or "trademark"

is the private property of the individual drug manufacturer. No other competitor can use a trade name. Brand Names are usually all capitals or starts with a CAPITALS letters ex LIPITOR®

Drug Forms A

drugs are prepared in various forms for administration. The physical and chemical properties of a drug usually determines which form willl be most effective

Drug Form B

most drug products contain other ingredients that facilitate the administration and absorption of the drug

Aqueous Preparations

Syrups are commonly used aqueous preparations. Syrups is a solution of water and sugar to which a drug is added
EX: robitussin, tussionex

Alcoholic Preparations

Are fluids that are dissolved into various concentration of alcohol, usually in the range of 5-20%
EX: Elixirs, Spirits, Tinctures
*alcohol is used in whiskey, cognac

Powders

Powders are drugs or drug extracts that are dried and grounded into fine particals
EX: Thera-Flu

Tablets

Are drugs powders that have been compressed into a convenient form for swallowing.
EX: Motroin, Birth Control

Lozenges

These flattened tablets are allowed to dissolve into the mouth EX: commit, halls

Capsules

Gelatin capsules are used to administer drug powders that have been changed to a liquid or liquid extracts from plants or seeds EX: dayquil, acidophalus

Delayed- Release Products

Are usually tablets or capules that are treated with special coating that dissolved at different rates.

Enteric- Coated Products

Drug tablets or capsules that are coated with an acid - resistant subtance that will dissolve only in the less acidic portion of the intestines
EX: barium

Suppositories

These are drugs mixed with a substance (cacao butter) that will melt at body temperature
EX: Monistat, Terazol, Fever all

Ointments

Ointments or slaves are soft, oily subtances (containing petrolatum/ lanolin) to which a drug is added then applied to the skin, eye, or ear.
EX: AtD ointment, hydrocortizone

Drug Action

how drugs produce changes within the body

Drug Effect

Changes that take place in the body as a result of drug actions
EX: slowing down (Atropine) or speeding up (Epinephrine) the body process

Desired Effect

Effect of drugs on any body part that was intended or the goal of the mediciation
EX: insulin - lowers blood sugar
Lipitor- lowers bad cholestoral
Ambien - aids in sleeping

Side Effect

additional effect on the body by the drug that was not part of the goal for that medication
EX:Oxycodone - itchy

Adverse Reaction

one in which the body reacts to a drug in an unexpected way that may endanger a patients health and safety
EX:insulin - seizures convulsions from sugar dropping to low too fast
Penicillin - 1st time taken, causes swelling of the tongue and throat, hivea all body

Contraindiciation

any special symptoms or circumstances that indicate that the use of a particular drug or procedure is dangerous, not advised or has not been proven safe for administration
EX:Coumadin, hemorrhage bleeding

Local Effect

response to a mediciation that is continued to a specific part of the body
EX: Novacaine, Lidocanie, local anesthics

Systemic Effect

generalized or wide spread response to a drug by the body because it is absorbed into the blood stream
EX:IV fluid medications, anesthesia

Cumulation

occurs when a drug is not completely excreted by the body before another dose is given

Idiosyncracy AKA Anaphylatic Shock

an unusual and inapproiate response to a drug or to the usual effective dose of a drug

Potentiation

occurs when two drugs are administered together and produce a more powerful effect than the sum of their individual parts
EX: insulin/ glucophage
Diovian / HCTZ (waterpill)

Tolerance

comes from cumulation (build up with in the body). direct resistence to a drug

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