The cortex layer of the hair structure is responsible for the hair's length and texture.
False - The cortex layer of the hair structure is responsible for the hair's strength and elasticity.
The term pH is an abbreviation used for potential hydrogen.
In permanent waving, the size of the rod determines the size of the curl.
Salt bonds can be broken by water, whereas disulfide bonds are broken by changes in pH.
False - Hydrogen bonds can be broken by water, whereas salt bonds are broken by changes in pH.
The single flat wrap uses one end paper folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
False - The bookend wrap uses one end paper folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
On-base placement minimizes stress and tension on the hair.
False - Half off-base placement minimizes stress and tension on the hair.
Alkaline waves are also known as cold waves.
Ammonia-free waves use an ingredient other than ATG, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine.
False - Thio-free waves use an ingredient other than ATG, such as cysteamine or mercaptamine.
The strength of any permanent wave is based on the concentration of its reducing agent.
The most common neutralizer is hydrogen peroxide.
The curvature permanent wrap uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.
False - The weave technique uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.
Japanese thermal straightening combines use of a thio relaxer with flat ironing.
Hair that has been treated with a hydroxide relaxer is unfit for permanent waving and will not hold a curl.
Keratin straightening treatments work by breaking side bonds.
False - Keratin straightening treatments work by fixing the keratin in place in a semipermanent manner; they do not break bonds.
The process of chemically altering the natural wave pattern of hair is:
chemical texture services
The range of numbers used in the pH scale is:
0 to 14
Chemical hair texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair in order to:
soften and swell the shaft
In the restructuring process, coarse, resistant hair with a strong compact cuticle requires a chemical solution that is:
Chemical side bonds formed when two sulfur-type chains are joined together are:
Hydrogen bonds are easily broken by water or heat and are re-formed when the hair is:
In permanent waving, the shape and type of curl are determined by the shape and type of rod and the:
Rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area are:
The wrapping technique that provides the most control over hair ends is the:
double flat wrap
All perm wraps begin by sectioning the hair into:
In permanent waving, panels of hair are divided into smaller subsections called:
Caution should be used with on-base rod placement to avoid additional:
stress and tension on hair
The angle at which a permanent wave rod is positioned on the head is referred to as:
The two methods of wrapping the hair around a perm rod are:
croquignole and spiral
In the croquignole method of wrapping, the hair is wound from:
ends to scalp
Once in the cortex, the waving solution breaks the disulfide bonds through a chemical reaction called:
In permanent waving, the reduction reaction is due to the addition of:
The most common reducing agents used are:
The active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanent waves is:
Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between:
9.0 and 9.6
The main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions is:
All acid waves have three components consisting of the permanent waving lotion, neutralizer, and:
Most acid waves used in salons have a pH value between:
7.8 and 8.2
Exothermic waves create a chemical reaction that heats the waving solution and speeds up:
Waves that are activated from an outside heat source are considered:
Hair that has too many disulfide bonds broken and will not hold a firm curl is considered:
The process that stops the action of permanent wave solution and rebuilds the hair into its new form is:
Base sections are offset from each other row by row, to prevent noticeable splits, in which wrapping pattern?
bricklay permanent wrap
The double-rod wrap technique is also called the:
The process of rearranging the basic structure of curly hair into a straighter or smoother form is:
chemical hair relaxing
The active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers is the:
Hydroxide relaxers remove a sulfur atom from a disulfide bond, converting it into a(n):
Relaxers that contain only one component and are used without mixing are:
metal hydroxide relaxers
Sodium hydroxide relaxers are commonly called:
Relaxers are often marketed and sold as no mix-no lye relaxers are:
potassium hydroxide relaxers
Relaxers that contain two components and must be mixed immediately prior to use are:
guanidine hydroxide relaxers
Hydroxide relaxers that do not require the application of a protective base are:
The difference in the strength of most chemical hair relaxers is determined by the concentration of:
During a relaxer strand test, hair that is pressed to the scalp and continues to curl is:
The application for chemical relaxers should be started in the most resistant area, usually the:
back of head
Conditioner with an acidic pH that restores the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer is:
A combination of a thio relaxer and a thio permanent wrapped on large rods is a:
soft curl permanent
Chemical services should not be performed if the scalp analysis shows any signs of:
Hair that is treated with hydroxide relaxers must not be treated with:
Most common type of perm rod
Also known as the circle rod
Tough exterior layer of the hair
Compound made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen nitrogen, and sulfur
Long, coiled polypeptide chains
Permanent waves that have a 7.0 or neutral pH
Hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rod
Spiral perm wrap
Also known as a straight set wrap
Basic permanent wrap