Where is energy in the Earth's atmosphere? Where does it come from?
comes from the sun in...
-at the Earth's Surface
What does energy travel through (from the sun to the Earth)?
What does energy travel as?
What is visible light?
-light that can be seen
-much of energy from sun travels as visible light
What are the two kinds of radiation? Describe each.
Infrared Radiation-longer wavelengths, felt as heat
Ultraviolet Radiation-shorter wavelengths, can cause sunburn and skin cancer
What are the three things that happen to energy in the atmosphere? Describe each.
ABSORBED-by atmosphere (ozone in the stratosphere, water vapor, carbon dioxide, dust etc.)
REFLECTED-Clouds reflect it back towards space. Particles scatter short wavelengths of visible light which makes sky look blue
PASSES-the rest passes through the surface
What happens to energy at the Earth's surface?
-about half of sun's energy absorbed by water and land and changed into heat
What is the greenhouse effect?
-infrared radiation that comes off heated earth is absorbed by gasses etc. in atmosphere to keep earth warm
What is temperature?
the average amount of motion of each particle
-move fast=high temp.-slow=low temp.
What is thermal energy?
-total motion of all particles in a substance
How do you measure temperature? How does it work?
-liquid at bottom (usually mercury)
What is the freezing and boiling point using celsius?
freezing point=0 degrees
What is the freezing and boiling point using fahrenheit?
freezing point=32 degrees
boiling point=212 degrees
What are the three ways heat is transferred? Describe each.
Conduction-one substance to another
Convection-movement of a fluid
What happens during heating in the troposphere?
-sun heats earth's surface, air near surface warmed by radiation and conduction
What are convection currents?
-upward movement of warm air and downward movement of cold air
What is wind?
-caused by convection currents (normally)
-warm air expands then rises, cold air condenses then falls
How is the direction of wind measured?
-wind is named by where it comes from Ex. South wind
How is the speed of wind measured?
What is the wind chill factor?
the increased cooling of wind
What are local winds?
-caused by unequal heating of Earth's surface within a small area
What is a sea breeze and land breeze?
Sea Breeze-warm air on land rises, cooler air from sea blows on shore
Land Breeze-at night, land is cool and air blows from land towards water
What are global winds?
-created by unequal heating of Earth's surfaces and blow over large areas
What are global convection currents?
-caused by diff. in air pressure between warm equator (lower pressure) and cooler poles (higher pressure)
What is the Coriolis Effect?
-winds appear to curve due to Earth's movement global winds in
Northern Hemisphere=appear to turn right
Southern Hemisphere=appear to turn left
What are doldrums?
-area near equator when winds are weak
What are horse latitudes?
-the belt of calm occurs at 30 degrees north/south of equator due to warm equator air rising cooling then sinking at 30 degrees latitude
What are trade winds?
-blow from horse latitudes towards equator
What are prevailing westerlies?
-blow away from horse latitudes, toward the poles, 30-60 degrees
What are polar easterlies?
-blow cold air away from poles
-mix with warmer westerlies at 60 degrees
-major effect on wealth in U.S.
What are jet streams?
-bands of high speed winds 10 km above Earth's surface
-hundreds of km wide, only a few km deep
-travel north to south (wavy path)
What is humidity?
warm air can hold more water than cold air
How is relative humidity measured?
How do clouds form?
-water vapor in air condenses forming liquid water or ice crystals
-process of condensation
-role of cooling
-role of particles
What is the role of cooling in the formation of clouds?
-as air cools it holds less water
Dew point: temp to which air has to cool to reach saturation
-forms droplets or ice depending if freezing or not
What is the role of particles in the formation of clouds?
-water needs surface to condense on
-clouds must condense of surface Ex. particles of dust from soil, smoke, or salt
How are clouds classified?
-by shape and altitude
What are cirrus clouds?
-wispy, feathery clouds
-form high (6km) where temp is low
What are cumulus clouds?
-look like cotton balls (white and puffy)
-form 2km above surface
What are cirrocumulus clouds?
-type of cumulus
-towering clouds with flat tops, often produce thunderstorms
What are stratus clouds?
-form in layers low to ground
-cover all/most of sky
-uniform dull grey color
What are nimbostratus clouds?
-thick stratus clouds that produce drizzle, rain, or snow
What are altocumulus and altostratus clouds?
-cumulus and stratus clouds 2-6 km in height
"alto" means high
What is fog?
-clouds that form at/near ground
-tends to form when ground cools after humid day
-air close to ground reaches dew point
What is precipitation?
-droplets must combine to be heavy enough to fall
What is rain?
-drops of water at least 5mm diameter
What is sleet?
-ice particles smaller than 5mm
What is freezing rain?
-does not freeze until it hits ground
What is snow?
6 sided ice crystals
What is hail?
ice pelt larger than 5mm
When and how is precipitation modified?
-cloud seeding: put silver iodide (particles) and dry ice (cooling) from planes into clouds for rain (doesn't work well)
How is precipitation measured?
snowfall-by measuring stick or melting collected snow and determining the volume of water
rain-via rain gauge, an open-ended tube that collects rain water