What is Moksha?
Moksha is how a person can achieve literation (freedom) from desires and suffering. A state of perfect understanding of all things.
What are the Upanishads?
Philisophical texts considered to be an early source of Hindu religion.
How do reincarnation, the caste system, and karma work together?
The caste system works with karma because if you've been good you move to a higher level in the caste system. If you have been bad and have bad karma then you move down on the caste system. Also reincarnation is about the caste system and how good or bad you are.
Summarize the message of the Four Noble Truths.
The message of the Four Noble Truths is everything in life is suffering and sorrow. That is caused by desires, people want things.
The beliefs of Confucius and Laozi (Lao-Tzu) were influenced by the dynasty they grew up in. What was this dynasty and what was going on?
The Dynasty that Laozi and Confucious lived in was the Zhou Dynasty. China was falling down and everything was going wrong. China was going downhill, corruption was going on. The problems were just starting.
How is Hinduism similar to Confucianism, and Buddhism similar to Daoism?
Hinduism is similar to Confucianism because there was a social order in both religions. Daoism and Buddhism are both peaceful religions a little bit. They both have no gods as well.
Be able to apply the Mandate of Heaven and Dynastic Cycle to the Han Dynasty.
The Han Dynasty first started off as peaceful and prosperous. Rulers were considered to have Mandate of Heaven (royal authority comes from heaven.) Then there were signs of political corruption. Taxes are increased and the dynasty beings to weaken. Then there are greater signs: rulers have lost Mandate of Heaven. Natural disasters occur. Famines (shortage of food) occur. There was also flooding and revolting. Then there was the Aging Dynast which was seen as having lost the Mandate of Heaven. The old dynasty is overthrown by warfare. Then a new dynasty emerges. It restores peace and prosperity. It was also considered to have the Mandate of Heaven.
What do the inscriptions on the heat cracked shells found in Anyang tell about Shang royal life?
• Kings were ruthless
• Hot coals were poured into a hollowed cylinder and victims scared to death
• Whether the information is fact or fiction no one knows,
Describe the Chou Dynasty- politically, socially, and philosophically.
. Harsh crimes. Feudal system based on the ways of Confucious. King considered a father figure.
: Why was the Great Wall of China built? Describe its construction. How long is it? What were the risks in becoming a part of such projects? What did the Great Wall represent to outsiders?
• Nomadic warriors raided Chin settlements along frontier
• First emperor responded wit army of 200,000 convicts and 100,000 troops
• Goal: build Great Wall of China
• 10 years to build- people died
• Dead bodies- used to fill in wall
• Facing harsh conditions
• Possibly military enemies
Describe the examination system. Explain whether or not it was a true meritocracy.
A meritocracy is where people are appointed power according to their good deeds that they perform. The examination system was not a true meritocracy. This system was where you had to take a test to get power. Only the rich people were smart enough to pass the test because they were the only ones who could get a great education. The poor people could not afford to get a good education. That's why it wasn't a true meritocracy.
Sui: How did the achievements of the Sui dynasty contribute to the success of future dynasties?
• The taxes were lowered so people were able to pay them which helped the economy
• Examination system was in effect so people could get power in the government
• Better military
• Not that many military attacks because of Grand Canal
Tang: How did China sustain their political and cultural expansion during the Tang dynasty?
• The Silk Road and the Grand Canal made it possible for them to trade
• When Empress Wu ruled she helped China to thrive with her being a brilliant political leader
• The examinations helped China to have control over the government
• With the examination system the brightest people got chosen. There was teaching and learning education
• Following beliefs of Confucious
• Getting varieties of cultures and religions to follow
• Through trade
Song: What were the results of Song China's extensive urbanization and commercial expansions between the 10th and 13th century?
• Better trade
• Better travel routes
• Better sea power and expansion
• Better tools that helped make every day life easier with technology
• Printing press made it so much easier to produce text and makes copying so much easier
Ming: Why did the Ming Dynasty, despite growth, focus on recovering the past rather than pioneering the future?
• There was so much value that they didn't want to lose. Confucianism is an example.
• Peace and respect didn't want to be lost
Explain the background of the Mongol leader Genghis Khan. How does it influence his desire for power?
Genghis Khan was a great Mongol conqueror. He was a fatherless boy facing death with his family on the barren steps. His life will demand an iron will. He had been abandoned and had a strong sense that the world doesn't work the way it should. He wants to get revenge and feels that he should help the world get right again.
What were some of the Empires/Societies conquered by the Mongols? What is arguably the most remarkable part of this take over?
The TarTars, the Chin, the Chinese, Bejjing, and Persian cities were some that were conquered by the Mongols. The most remarkable part of this take over arguably is east is open to west which hasn't been done in 1,000 years. You can travel in safety.
Describe the Mongol empire during its decline. What immeasurable impacts did this empire have on the world?
The huge size makes it difficult to maintain. There were not enough Mongols. Rulers spend time figfhting each other instead of combining their strength. Powers were slipping and going to tribes
TMore's cruelty becomes a legend.