procedure that uses a stethoscope to listen to the heart sounds. It is used to determine the heart rate or detect heart arrhythmias and murmurs
procedure to treat an arrhythmia that cannot be treated with antiarrhythmic drugs. Two large, hand held paddles are placed on either side of the patient's chest. The machine generates an electrical shock coordinated to the QRS complex of the patient's heart to restore the heart to a normal rhythm . For a patient with Vfib, the same machine is used (defibrillator) but with a much stronger electrical shock.
procedure in which a sclerosing drug (liquid or foam) is injected into a varicose vein. The drug causes irritation and inflammation that later becomes fibrosis that occludes the vein. The blood flow is diverted to another vein and the varicose vein is no longer distended
procedure during a physical examination to measure the temperature, pulse, and respirations (TPR) as well as the blood pressure. HR is measured by counting the pulse (pulse points include the carotid pulse in the neck, apical pulse on the anterior chest, axillary pulse in the armpit, brachial pulse in the inner elbow, radial pulse at the wrist, femoral pulse in the inguinal area (groin), popliteal pulse at the back of the knee, the posterior tibial pulse at the back of the lower leg, and the dorsalis pedis pulse on the dorsum of the foot. Blood pressure measured with a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope. As pressure increases in the cuff, it cuts off the flow of blood. The cuff pressure is lower that the pressure in the artery, the blood spurts through and creates the first sound. (systolic) When the cuff pressure reaches the resting pressure in the artery (diastolic).
procedure to remove an aneurysm and repair the defect in the artery wall. if an aneurysm involves a large segment of artery, a flexible, tubular synthetic graft is used to replace the segment
technique used during open heart surgery in which the patient's blood is rerouted through a cannula in the femoral vein to a heart-lung machine. There, the blood is oxygenated, carbon dioxide and waste products are removed, and the blood is pumped back into the patient's body through a cannula in the femoral artery. Takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during the surgery
procedure to remove plaque from an occluded carotid artery. It is used to treat carotid stenosis due to atherosclerosis
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
procedure to bypass an occluded coronary artery and restore blood flow to the myocardium. A blood vessel (either the saphenous vein from the leg or the internal mammary artery from the chest) is used as the bypass graft. If the saphenous vein is used it must be placed in a reversed position so that its valves will not obstruct the flow of blood. The suturing of one blood vessel to another is an anastomosis. Oxygenated blood flows through the graft, around the blockage in the coronary artery, and back into the coronary artery. (cabbage)
surgical procedure to remove a severely amaged heart from a patient with end-stage heart failure and insert a new heart from a donor. The patient is matched by blood type and tissue type to the donor. Heart transplant patients must take immunosuppressant drugs for the rest of their lives to keep their bodies from rejecting the foreign tissue of their new heart. Some patients receive an artificial heart made of plastic, metal, and other synthetic materials. While awaiting a donor heart, the patient may have a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) temporarily implanted. This battery or pneumatic powered pump is placed in the abdomen and connected by tubes to the left ventricle and the aorta.
procedure in which an automated device is implacted to control the heart rate and rhythm. A pacemaker used a wire positioned on the heart to coordinate the heartbeat with an electrical impulse
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
procedure to reconstruct an artery that is narrowed because of atherosclerosis. A catheter is inserted into the femoral artery and threaded to the site of the stenosis. During a balloon angioplasty, a balloon with in the catheter is inflated. It compresses the atheromatous plaque and widens the lumen of the artery. Then the balloon is deflated and the catheter is removed. Alternatively, an intravascualr stainless steel mesh stent can be inserted on the catheter. The stent is expanded, the catheter is removed, and the expanded stent remains in the artery
procedure that uses a needle to puncture the pericardium and withdraw inflammatory fluid accumulated in the pericardial sac.
radiofrequency catheter ablation
procedure to destroy ectopic areas in the heart that are emitting electrical impulses and producing arrhythmias. Electromagnetic energy produced by a generator produces enough heat at the site to kill the cells causing the arrhythmia.
surgical procedure to replace a severely damaged or prolapsed heart valve. There are several types of prosthetic heart valves that can be used (xenograft =from animal)
surgical procedure to reconstruct a heart valve to correct stenosis or prolapse. A valvulotome is used to cut the valve.