How were growing cities linked?
Through the telegram and railroad
What happened between 1873-1895?
The Great depression of the 19th century.
What did the Great Depression teach us was bad?
A boom/bust cycle. We needed to regulate production.
Why was regulation of goods important?
The incoming of cheap goods from other countries made deflation occur because of overproduction. Regulating them kept production down and prices higher.
Groups of firms in industries designed to keep production down and to regulate costs.
fancy word for cartel. Banks controlling intrest rates.
What was the only country that practiced free trade?
Politicized workers. They went on strike to get higher wages. Some fought and armed themselves (militant trade unions)
wanted to represent workers in Parliament
James Keir Hardie
first working man in Parliament
intellectuals concerned with the welfare of the poor. Were socialists. Supported the Labour Party.
What was declared an enemy of Germany?
The Catholic Church
"struggle for civilization". Represented the Germanic struggles with the Church. Started by liberals.
Social Democratic Party
Marxist socialist party targeted by Bismarck. They were outlawed but survived. Wanted gradual reform. Became largest party in Germany by 1914.
Who dismissed Bismarck?
Emperor Wilhelm II
The Third Republic of France made everyone what? How?
Equal with common values and nationalistic. By schooling and necessary military service.
The Boulanger Affair
French minister of War, General Georges Boulanger reformed army life and wanted to be president of the Third Republic in order to restore the Bourbon throne. Called a traitor and he fled.
Captain Alfred Dreyfus (French but with Jewish family from Germany) was blamed for spilling secrets of the military to Germany. Not his fault. Blamed because he was foreign (xenophobia). Forced to live on Devil's Island but eventually given a full pardon.
Fear and hatred of foreigners
What type of government was in Austria in 1860's?
Liberal values (constitutional monarchy, centralization, restricted suffrage and multinational government) worked against new thoughts and forces of what?
Anti-semitism, socialism, nationalism and mass politics.
Was were Jews indentified as?
Made up of lower middle class and workers. Anti-capitalist and anti-Semitic. Wanted reform through irrational and violent means.
Who were the outsiders of society?
Women, Jews, ethnic minorities.
Why did it suck for women?
They were paid less, had no divorce rights, income was considered husband's, had no right to vote, couldn't go to college, couldn't have a bank account and were "supposed" to be kept at home for the cleaning and kids.
What did some women become? What did they want?
Feminists. Wanted equal rights. Acknowledged that there are differences between men and women.
What did some feminists say?
That while they wanted equal rights, women are inferior to men.
Women's Social and Political Union formed in 1903 by aristocratic women to gain political alliances.
Women marched on Parliament for the right to vote. Were beaten by police officers.
Emerged in 1910 after Black Friday. Were militant suffragists.
Martyr who threw herself in front of a king's horse at a derby
When were women given equal rights in GB?
What "ism" did feminists like?
Socialism. Equal rights for all!
What did Eastern European Jews do between 1868 and 1914?
They migrated West due to persecution in the east, which was less in the West.
Organized massacres for Jews, because they "caused" the economic downturn and were blamed for the assassination of Alexander II.
When a Jew calls him/herself by what nation they are in, not by their religion.
What were Jews blamed for? Why?
The economic downturn because they were capitalists and bankers. Most Jews weren't capitalists.
the need for a Jewish home country. Called the "Jewish Problem". Jewish nationalist movement.
Austrian Jew and founder of Zionism
Where did they want the Jews to go? Why was this controversial?
Palestine. Controversial because Islams and Christians had ties to Jerusalem.
Free from constrains, use of violence to get liberated, wanted revolution and collapse of capitalist system. Not socialists.
artisans who were apart of the anarchist movement.
The General strike
Anarcho-syndicalists' belief that a judgement day would go down and the bourgeois would collapse.
Discoveries in which sciences were rapid?
Inoculation (spread of disease in humans)
Electricity and magnetism are related
Max Planck, Einstein, Neils Bohr
Laid foundation for physics
Nobel Prize, dynamite
Sociology, economics, history, psychology, anthropology, archeology.
What were the social sciences used for?
To promote inequalities and prejudices.
how to minimize spending and maximize profit
Made first pyschological lab
Conditioned reflex in dogs
Personality development and psychoanalysis.
Sir Francis Galton
Eugenics (improving human race through selective breeding)
physical characteristics could prove inferiority and criminal traits
What did Charles Darwin conclude in The Descent of Man?
that women's brains are smaller than a man's.
Survival of the fittest in the human race.
women equal to man in everyway. Middle class phenomenon.
Who used the term "birth control"?
An American, Margaret Sanger
What was born with industrial prosperity?
A new consumer age with a surplus of money.
What did people spend papers on?
Clothes, shoes, bars, coffee, sports, vaudeville, music halls, movies. Olympic games, Eiffel Tower.