A&P 232 Pathways and General Receptors

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PCC Slyvania AP 232

The term general sense refers to sensations of all of the following except sensitivity to

Light

The special senses include all of the following except

Tissue Damage

The general sense

involve receptors that are relatively simple

Receptor specificity can be the result of all the following except

tissue location of the receptor cell

Receptor specificity is the result of

The structure of the receptor cell
Accessory structures and tissues that shield the receptors from other stimuli
accessory cells that function with the receptor
Characteristics of the receptor cell membrane

Transduction involves all of the following

Changes in the transmembrane potential of the sensory receptor.
The generation of an action potential that can be processed and interpreted by the CNS.
The production of a generator potential.
A. stimulus altering the permeability of a receptor membrane.
A stimulus altering the permeability of a receptor membrane.

Central adaptation refers to

Inhibition of nuclei located along a sensory pathway

Our perception of our environment is incomplete because of all of the following, except that?

Receptors respond in an all or nothing manner

Nociceptors

Usually have large receptive fields

Thermoreceptors

Are scattered immediately beneath the surface of the skin

A receptor that has a membrane that contains many mechanically regulated ion channels would be?

Tactile receptor

A tactile receptor that responds to deep touch

Ruffini Corpuscle

Sensory receptors that monitor position of joins are called

Proprioceptors

Sensory receptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called

Baroreceptors

A tactile receptor is composed of a capsule that surrounds a core of collagen fibers. Those that are continuous with the dermis and are intertwined with dendrites are called?

Ruffini Corpuscles

A tactile receptor composed of dendrites taht are highly coild and interwoven, surrounded by modified Schwann Cells and fibrous capsule, is a?

Meissner's corpuscle

A tactile receptor that is composed of dendritic process that lie within a series of concentric cellular layers is a

Pacinian Corpuscle

A tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with unusually large epithlial cells of the stratum germinativum is a ?

Merkel Disc

A tactile receptor that monitors distortions and movements across teh body surface is a

Root hair plexus

Fine touch and pressure receptors provide detailed information about all of the following except the?

Time of stimulus

Tactile receptors include all of the following

Free nerve endings, meissner's corpuscles, the root hair plexus and the merkel's disc

Chemoreceptors are located in all of the

Aortic bodies
Special senses of taste and smell
The respiratory are of the medulla
Carotid bodies

The spinal tract that carries sensory information concerning fine touch and pressure is the

Fasciculus gracilis

The spinal tract that relays information from proprioceptors to the CNS is the

Posterior spinocerebellar

The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the?

Lateral spinothalamic

The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the?

Anterior Spinothalamic

Each of the following is an ascending tract in the spinal cord

Fasciculus gracilis
Anterior spinothalamic
Fasciculus cuneatus
Posterior spinocerebellar

The sensory neuron that delivers the sensation to the CNS is a

First Order Neuron

Interneurons of sensory pathways that are located in the spinal cord or brain are referred to as

Second Order Neuron

Sensory neurons that are located in the thalamus and project to the sensory cortex of the cerebrum

Third Order Neuron

Postsynaptic neurons from the nucleus gracilis

Relay information to the cerebrum by way of the Medial Lemniscus

We can distinguish between sensations that originate in different areas of the body because?

Sensory neurons from each body region synapse in specific brain regions (Primary Motor Sensory)

The spinal tract that regulates voluntary motor control of SKELETAL MUSCLE on the opposite side of the body is the

lateral corticospinal

The spinal tract that regulates INvoluntary control of posture and muscle tone is the

vestibulospinal

Teh spinal tract that controls involuntary regulation of reflex activity and autonomic function is the

reticulospinal

The spinal tract that controls involuntary regulation of eye, head, neck and arm position in the response to visual and auditory stimuli is the

Tectospinal

The pyramidal system provides

Voluntary control over Skeletal Muscles

Voluntary control of skeletal muscles is provided by the

Pyramidal system

The are of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body is relative to the

number of motor units in the area of the body

Axons of the corticobulbar tract terminate at the

Motor nuclei of cranial nerves

Axons of the corticospinal tract synapse at motor

Neurons in the anterior horns of the spinal cord

The pyramids on the surgace of the medulla are formed by fibers of the

corticospinal tract

Axons that decussate in the region of the pyramids of the medullar form the

lateral corticospinal tract

Processing centers of the extra pyramidal system include all of the following

Superior colliculus
Red Nucleus
Vestibular nucleus
Cerebral Nuceli

Spinal tracts of the extrapyramidal system include all of the following tracts:

reticulospinal
tectospinal
rubrospinal
vestibulospinal

The cerebral nuclei

provide a background pattern and rhythm for movement

Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle or eat

require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain

The more synapses that information must pass through, the longer it takes the nervous system to access the information and respond. This delay is not dangerous because?

involuntary motor commands are issued by relay stations in the spinal cord and brain stem

The cerebellum adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activity in response to all of the following:

Proprioceptive data
info. from cerebral cortex
visual information
equilibrum related sensations

Some of the fibers that form the lateral corticospinal tracts are damaged before tehy decussate at the medulla...this injury would affect

Motor function of the opposite side from the damage

Motor neurons whose cell bodies lie in the CNS processing center are called

Upper motor neurons

Somatic sensory information is distributed to sensory processing centers in the

Brain

Visceral sensory information is distributed to sensory processing centers primarily in the

Brain stem and Diencephalon

Sensory receptors are specialized cells or cell processes that provide your CNS with information about conditions

Inside and Outside your body

Special Senses are?

Smell
Sight
Hearing
Balance

Taste receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to pressures, why?

Due to receptor specificity

A receptor potential large enough to produce an action potential is called

Generator potential

Sensory information that arrives at the CNS is routed according to the _______of the stimulus

Location and Temperature

Pain receptors are to____as temperature receptors are to______?

nociceptors; thermoreceptors

Peripheral adaptation____the amount of information that reaches the CNS

decreases

Proprioceptors are to _____ as exteroreceptors are to_______.

skeletal muscle; external environment

________are receptors in the lung that monitor the degree of lung expansion

Baroreptors

You are in the hospital with your uncle who was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is jaw pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with this phenomenon of

Referred pain

Somatic motor pathways involve at least____motor neurons.

Two

Conscious and subconscious motor commands control skeletal muscles by traveling over the

Medial pathway, Corticospinal pathway and Lateral pathway

The medial and lateral motor pathways can modify, or direct, skeletal muscle contractions by_______lower motor neurons

facilitating, inhibiting and stimulating

The cerebellum monitors

Sensations from the inner ear as movements are under way, proprioreceptors sensations, visual information from the eyes.

_______is a rare condition in which the brain fails to develop at levels above the mesencephalon or inferior part of the diencephalon

Anencephaly

A labeled line is

a link between a receptor and cortical neuron

Receptors are______more numerous than____receptors

Cold; Warm

Related to the medial and lateral pathways: The ____pathway controls_____movements of trunk____limb muscles

medial, precise, and distal

A sensory receptor characterized as free nerve ending, using the amino acid glutamate and neuropeptide Substance P, would likely be a

Nociceptor

The ability to localize a specific stimulus depends on the organized distribution of sensory information to the

Primary sensory cortex

Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic nervous system produces

Paralysis of the innervated motor unit

Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic nervous system produces

Paralysis of the innervated motor unit

Damage to the medial lemniscus leads to

Unable to pinpoint the location of sensations of touch, pressure, vibrations and position

All of the following are true of sensations of pricking pain, except that they

Decrease in intensity over time as the receptors adapt

Sensations of burning or aching pain

cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and the thalamus

What symptoms would you associate with damage to the nucleus gracilis on the right side of the medulla

inability to perceive fine touch from the right leg

Stimulation of a neuron that terminates in the superior portion of the left postcentral gyrus would produce

sensation in the leg

Stimulation of a neuron that originates in the inferior region of the right precentral gyrus would produce

muscle twitch in the left cheek

Damage to the tectospinal tracts would interfere with the

ability to position eyes, head, neck in response to bright lights

Damage to the Pacinian corpuscles of the arm would interfere with the ability to feel

a pinch

Harry was in a biking accident and injures his back. He is examined by a doctor who notices that Harry cannot feel pin pricks in his left foot but can feel the sensation in his right foot as well as his right and left arms of the thorax. These appear to be no problems with the motor activity in any of his appendages. The physician tells Harry that he thinks a portion of the spinal cord may be compressed and is causing these symptoms. Where the problem is probably located

Right lateral spinothalamic tract at the L2 level

____is the area monitored by a single receptor cell

receptor field

The change in transmembrane potential that accompanies receptor stimulation is called

receptor potential

_____is a membrane depolarization that leads to an action potential in an excitable sensory membrane

generator potential

A ____ is the neural link between a receptor and the associated cortical neuron.

labeled line

Sensory neurons that are always active are called

Tonic receptors

______provides information about the strength, duration, variation and movement of a sensory stimulus

sensory coding

The ______ is a map of the sensory cortex of the cerebrum

sensory homunculus

The ______is a map of the motor cortex of the cerebrum

Motor homuculus

The term___refers to a number of disorders that affect voluntary motor performance; they appear during infancy or childhood and persist throughout the life of the affected individual

cerebral palsy

Pain receptors are fast-acting receptors

False

Phastic receptors are also called fast adapting

true

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