Human Bio Chapter 6

62 terms by dwor5291 

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Origin

The location where a muscle attaches to the immovable or less movable bone

Insertion

The location where a muscle attaches to the movable bone. When the muscle contracts, this is brought towards the origin.

Flexion

A movement that brings two bone ends together

Extension

A movement that increases the distance between bone ends

Rotation

A movement of a bone around a longitudinal (horizontal) axis

Abduction

A movement that moves a limb away from the midline

Adduction

A movement that moves a lib towards the midline

Circumduction

A movement of a bone around a latitudinal (vertical) axis

Dorsiflexion

A movement that involves bringing the foot towards the shin

Plantar flexion

A movement that involves depressing (pointing the toes) the foot

Inversion

Turning the foot toward the midline

Eversion

Turning the foot away from the midline

Supination

Turning the forearm laterally so that the palm faces up

Pronation

Turning the forearm medially so that the palm faces down

Opposition

Moving the thumb to touch the tip of a finger

Prime Mover

The muscle that has the major responsibility for a particular movement

Antagonistic muscle

A muscle that has the opposite action and often helps the movement of the prime mover

Synergists

Help move prime movers by producing the same movement or preventing undesirable movements

Fixators

A muscle that holds the bone still so all tension can be used to move the bone by the prime mover

Circular

Fascicles arranged in concentric rings

Convergent

Fascicles converge towards a single tendon

Parallel

fascicles run parallel to long axis of muscle

Fusiform

spindle shaped muscle with enlarged midsection

Pennate

short fascicles attach obliquely to a central tendon

Frontalis

Origin - Cranial aponeurosis; Insertion - Skin of eyebrows; Action - Elevates the eyebrows

Orbicularis Oculi

Origin - Frontal bone; Insertion - Skin of eyelid; Action - Allows you to squint, blink, and wink

Orbicularis Oris

Origin - Mandible and Maxilla; Insertion - Skin and muscle of mouth; Action - Protrudes the lips

Buccinator

Origin - Maxilla and mandible; Insertion - Orbicularis oris; Action - Compresses cheek

Zygomaticus

Origin - Zygomatic arch; Insertion - corners of the lips; Action - raises corners of lips

Masseter

Origin - Temporal bone; Insertion - Mandible; Action - Closes jaw (Not Temporalis)

Temporalis

Origin - Temporal bone; Insertion - Mandible; Action - Closes jaw (Not Masseter)

Platysma

Origin - Chest muscles; Insertion - Mouth; Action - pulls corners of mouth

Sternocleidomastoid

Origin - Sternum and clavicle; Insertion - Mastoid process; Action - flexes the neck; rotates the head

Pectoralis Major

Origin - Sternum, clavicle, and upper ribs; Insertion - Humerus; Action -Adducts and flexes the humerus

External Intercostals

Origin - Upper rib; Insertion - Lower rib; Action - Elevate the ribs

Internal Intercostals

Origin - Lower ribs; Insertion - Upper rib; Action - Depress the ribs

Rectus Abdominis

Origin - Pubic bone; Insertion - Sternum and ribs; Action - Flexes vertebral column

External/Internal obliques

Origin - Lower ribs; Insertion - iliac crest; Action - flexes and rotates vertebral column

Transverse Abdominis

Origin - Lower ribs and iliac crest; Insertion - pubic bone; Action - compresses the abdomen

Trapezius

Origin - Occipital bone, cervical/thoracic vertebrae; Insertion - Scapula and Clavicle; Action - Extends neck and adducts humerus

Latissimus Dorsi

Origin - lower vertebrae and iliac crest; Insertion - humerus; Action - extends and adducts the humerus

Erector Spinae

Origin - iliac crest and middle ribs; Insertion - Thoracic and cervical vertebrae; Action - extend the spine

Deltoid

Origin - Scapula and Clavicle; Insertion - Humerus; Action - abduct the humerus

Biceps Brachii

Origin - Scapula; Insertion - Radius; Action - Flex the humerus

Brachialis

Origin - Humerus; Insertion - Radius; Action - Flex the humerus, supinate forearm

Triceps Brachii

Origin - Scapula and Humerus; Insertion - Ulna; Action - Extend the forearm

Gluteus Maximus

Origin - Ilium; Insertion - Femur; Action - extend femur

Iliopsoas

Origin - ilium and lumbar vertebrae; Insertion - femur; Action - flexes the femur

Adductor Muscles

Origin - ischium; Insertion - Femur; Action - Adducts the femur

Biceps femoris

Origin - ischium; Insertion - Tibia and fibula; Action - flex the tibia and fibula

Semimembranosus

Origin - ischium; Insertion - tibia; Action - flex the tibia

Semitendinousus

Origin - ischium; Insertion - tibia; Action - flex the tibia

Sartorius

Origin - ilium; Insertion - tibia; Action - flex the tibia

Rectus Femoris

Origin - Ilium; Insertion - tibia; Action - extend the tibia; flex the femur

Vastus lateralis

Origin - femur; Insertion - tibia; Action - extend the tibia

Vastus medialis

Origin - femur; Insertion - tibia; Action - extend the tibia

Vastus intermedius

Origin - femur; Insertion - tibia; Action - extend the tibia

Tibialis anterior

Origin - Tibia; Insertion - tarsals; Action - inverts the foot; dorsiflexion

Extensor Digitorum Longus

Origin - tibia; Insertion - phalanges; Action - extends phalanges; dorsiflexes foot

Fibularis muscles

Origin - fibula; Insertion - metatarsals; Action - plantar flexion; evert the foot

Gastrocnemius

Origin - femur; Insertion - calcaneus; Action - flexes the femur; plantar flexion

Soleus

Origin - tibia and fibula; Insertion - calcaneus; Action - plantar flexion

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