A system in which the state bureaucracy and the military share a belief that a technocratic leadership, focused on rational, objective, and technical expertise, can solve the problems of the country without public participation.
(or patron-client networks) An established political elite maintains control through an elaborate network of contacts, co-opting his adversaries with varies perks.
The process by which individuals are brought into a beneficial relationship with the state, making them dependent on the state for certain rewards.
A method of co-optation whereby authoritarian systems create or sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public and restrict those not set up or approved by the state.
rule by elected leadership through procedures of questionable democratic legitimacy.
Organizations composed of representatives appointed by the state gov's that have agreed to become members of the organization
A system of social democratic policy making in which a limited number of organizations representing business and labor work with the state to set economic policy.
An organization devoted to issues of social welfare that is not directly linked to any government.
Political system in which state officers appropriate their offices for personal benefits and those of their supporters.
Goods, provided or secured by the state, available to society and which no private person or organization can own.
Actions of individuals and groups who spend resources to influence public policy in the hope of redistributing (transferring) income to themselves from others.
An intergovernmental system with its own sovereign powers over member states