The scientific attitude of skepticism is based on the belief that:
a. people are rarely candid in revealing their thoughts.
b. mental processes can't be studied objectively.
c. the scientist's intuition about behavior is usually correct.
d. ideas need to be tested against observable evidence.
Psychologists' personal values:
a. have little influence on how their experiments are conducted.
b. do not influence the interpretation of experimental results because of the use of statistical techniques that guard against subjective bias.
c. can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data.
d.have little influence on investigative methods but a significant effect on interpretation.
Juwan eagerly opened an online trading account, believing that his market savvy would allow him to pick stocks that would make him a rich day trader. This belief best illustrates
a. this scientific attitude.
b. critical thinking.
c. hindsight bias.
Which statement about the ethics of experimentation with people and animals is false?
a. Only a small percentage of animal experi-ments use shock.
b. Allegations that psychologists routinely subject animals to pain, starvation, and other inhumane conditions have been proven untrue.
c. The American Psychological Association and the British Psychological Society have set strict guidelines for the care and treatment of human and animal subjects.
d. More animals are used in psychological research than are killed by humane animal shelters.
Which of the following best describes the hindsight bias?
a. Events seem more predictable before they have occurred.
b. Events seem more predictable after they have occurred.
c. A person's intuition is usually correct.
d. A person's intuition is usually not correct.
Which of the following is true, according to the text?
a. Because laboratory experiments are artificial, any principles discovered cannot be applied to everyday behaviors.
b. No psychological theory can be considered a good one until it produces testable predictions.
c. Psychology's theories reflect common sense.
d. Psychology has few ties to other disciplines.
Your best friend criticizes psychological research for being artificial and having no relevance to behavior in real life. In defense of psychology's use of laboratory experiments you point out that:
a. psychologists make every attempt to avoid artificiality by setting up experiments that closely simulate real-world environments.
b. psychologists who conduct basic research are not concerned with the applicability of their findings to the real world.
c. most psychological research is not conducted in a laboratory environment.
d. psychologists intentionally study behavior in simplified environments in order to gain greater control over variables and to test general principles that help to explain many behaviors.
The scientific attitude in psychology refers to the fact that
a. psychologists study only observable behaviors.
b. psychologists study thoughts and actions with an attitude of skepticism and derive their conclusions from direct observations.
c. psychological research should be free of value judgments.
d. all of these statements are true.
A friend majoring in anthropology is critical of psychological research because it often ignores the influence of culture on thoughts and actions. You point out that
a. there is very little evidence that cultural diversity has a significant effect on specific behaviors and attitudes.
b. most researchers assign participants to experimental and control conditions in such a way as to fairly represent the cultural diversity of the population under study.
c. it is impossible for psychologists to control for every possible variable that might influence research participants.
d. even when specific thoughts and actions vary across cultures, as they often do, the underlying processes are much the same.
The scientific attitude of humility is based on the idea that
a. researchers must evaluate new ideas and theories objectively rather than accept them blindly.
b. scientific theories must be testable.
c. simple explanations of behavior make better theories than do complex explanations.
d. researchers must be prepared to reject their own ideas in the face of conflicting evidence.