Psychology 1 Final

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Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.

increase; increase

Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of

shaping

B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called

the law of effect.

The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction

the CR is suppressed

Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.

CS; US

If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n)

conditioned stimulus

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was

the presentation of food in the dog's mouth

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n)

neutral stimulus.

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of

observational learning.

Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for

observational learning.

Retinal disparity is an important cue for

perceiving distance.

Because the two teams wore different-colored uniforms, Cheri perceived the 10 basketball players as two distinct groups. This best illustrates the principle of

similarity

The organizational rules identified by Gestalt psychologists illustrate that

the perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts.

Figure is to ground as ________ is to ________.

a white cloud; blue sky

Infants who were exposed to the visual cliff

refused to cross over the "deep" side to their mothers.

The surface of the basilar membrane is lined with

hair cells.

Long sound waves are to short sound waves as a ________ voice is to a ________ voice

bass; soprano

Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light?

cones

A subliminal message is one that is presented

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.

Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.

detection; interpretation

Harmful chemicals or viruses that can be transferred from a mother to her developing fetus are called

teratogens.

A teratogen is a(n)

substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.

Sleep apnea is a disorder involving

temporary cessations of breathing during sleep.

Nightmares are to ________ as night terrors are to

REM sleep; Stage 4 sleep

A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simultaneously with and yet separately from other thoughts is called

dissociation.

During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a

sense of object permanence

The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects is called

conservation.

Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a

concept of conservation.

Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.

postconventional

Hypnagogic sensations are most closely associated with ________ sleep.

Stage 1

According to Erikson, trust is to infancy as identity is to

adolescence.

Fred has no meaningful occupational goals and has switched college majors several times. Erikson would have suggested that Fred lacks

identity.

Charles Darwin suggested that the evolution of living organisms is guided by

natural selection

Evolutionary psychologists attribute the human tendency to fear snakes and heights to

genetic predispositions.

The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during Stage 2 sleep are called

sleep spindles.

According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the achievement of

identity.

During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n)

zygote and finally develops into a fetus. (Zygote, Embryo, Fetus) ZEF

According to Kohlberg, morality based on a desire to uphold the laws of society is characteristic of the ________ stage.

conventional

While reading a novel, Raoul isn't easily distracted by the sounds of the TV or even by his brothers' loud arguments. This best illustrates

selective attention

Stage 2 sleep is to ________ as Stage 4 sleep is to ________.

sleep spindles; delta waves

The process of imprinting involves the formation of a(n)

attachment

One variation in the autism spectrum is characterized by normal intelligence, often accompanied by exceptional skill in a particular area, but deficient social and communication skills. This disorder is called

Asperger syndrome

The "rooting reflex" refers to a baby's tendency to

open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek.

Newborns have been observed to show the greatest visual interest in a

facelike image

Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to

secure attachment.

The body structures that enable reproduction are the

primary sex characteristics.

Unlike ducklings, children do not imprint. Their fondness for certain people, however, is fostered by

mere exposure.

According to Erikson, later adulthood is to integrity as young adulthood is to

intimacy.

Infants accustomed to a puppet jumping three times on stage show surprise if the puppet jumps only twice. This suggests that Piaget

underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants

The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ________ stage of development

formal operational

Abner, a 70-year-old retired teacher, feels that his life has not been of any real value or significance. According to Erikson, Abner has failed to achieve a sense of

integrity

Preconventional morality is to postconventional morality as ________ is to ________.

self-interest; ethical principles

Men and women are most likely to differ in their

aggressiveness

Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life cycle.

social

Older people's capacity to learn and remember meaningful material does not decline as much as their capacity to learn and remember meaningless material. This best illustrates the value of

crystallized intelligence.

Nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as the deepened male voice and male facial hair are called

secondary sex characteristics.

When people with autism watch another person's hand movements, they display less ________ than most others.

mirror neuron activity

Piaget claimed that children understand the world primarily by observing the effects of their own actions on other people, objects, and events during the ________ stage.

sensorimotor

Recognizing whether someone's facial expression is conveying a happy smile or a self-satisfied smirk is especially difficult for those with

autism.

When teased by his older sister, 9-year-old Waldo does not cry because he has learned that boys are not expected to. Waldo's behavior best illustrates the importance of

gender roles.

Kristen is a normal, healthy newborn. Research indicates that

she has most of the brain cells she is ever going to have.

Physical abilities such as muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output reach their peak during

early adulthood.

Infant novelty preferences have been discovered by assessing infants'

habituation.

According to Erikson, infancy is to trust as adolescence is to

identity.

Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they

impose rules and expect obedience.

According to Piaget, children in the preoperational stage are able to

represent objects with words and images.

Humanlike features start to develop around 9 weeks after conception. What is the developing human called at this point in development?

fetus

Which of the following terms refers to a person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly?

fluid intelligence

Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as

maturation.

Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child

develops through a series of stages

Aerobic exercise programs during late adulthood stimulate improvement in

memory

The powerful survival impulse that leads infants to seek closeness to their caregivers is called

attachment

Piaget is best known for his interest in the process of ________ development

cognitive

Parents who make few demands on their children and use little punishment are

permissive.

The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived is known as

object permanence.

Mrs. Pearson cut Judy's hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia's into six pieces. Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn't getting as much hot dog as Judy. Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn't understand the principle of

conservation.

One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology centers around the issue of

continuity or stages.

A mother who is slow in responding to her infant's cries of distress is most likely to encourage

insecure attachment.

In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to

use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings.

Boys who mature at an early age tend to be more

popular and self-assured.

Who are likely to show the greatest similarity in temperament?

Ruth and Ramona, identical twins

Mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time. Her viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of

continuity or stages.

According to Piaget, assimilation involves

interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding.

According to Piaget, egocentrism is to conservation as the ________ stage is to the ________ stage.

preoperational; concrete operational

In recognizing the inaccuracies of one's own ethnic stereotypes and revising his or her beliefs, an individual most clearly illustrates the process of

accommodation.

According to Kohlberg, morality based on a desire to uphold the laws of society is characteristic of the ________ stage.

conventional

A stage hypnotist can best increase the hypnotizability of select audience members by first providing them with a

strong expectation that they will be hypnotically responsive.

The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every

90 minutes.

Since 1960, psychology has regained an interest in consciousness as psychologists of all persuasions affirmed the importance of

cognition.

After ingesting a small dose of a psychoactive drug, Laqueta experienced vivid visual hallucinations and felt as if she were separated from her own body. Laqueta most likely experienced the effects of

LSD.

Consciousness is to unconsciousness as ________ is to ________.

serial processing; parallel processing

One naturalistic observation of pedestrians found that half the people on cell phones exhibit unsafe road-crossing behavior. This illustrates the impact of

selective attention.

Physical pain and intense cravings indicate

physical dependence.

Shown the hollow face illusion, people will mistakenly perceive the inside of a mask as a protruding face. Yet, they will accurately reach into the inverted mask to flick off a buglike target stuck on the face. This best illustrates the capacity for

dual processing.

Which of the following is a psychedelic drug?

LSD

A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates

selective attention.

The circadian rhythm is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the

suprachiasmatic nucleus

REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because

our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.

While a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The man's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates

change blindness.

Which of the following is a common symptom of nicotine withdrawal?

anxiety

Which theory suggests that dreams are mental responses to random bursts of neural stimulation?

activation-synthesis theory

Stimulants ________ appetite and ________ self-confidence.

decrease; increase

Narcolepsy is a disorder involving

periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness.

Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through

REM sleep.

Smokers with ________ levels of nicotine tolerance are likely to suffer the most severe withdrawal symptoms when they discontinue smoking.

high

After a stressful day at the office, Arthur has five or six drinks at a local bar before going home for dinner. Research suggests that Arthur's heavy drinking will have the most adverse effect on his ability to remember

the next day the names of the people he talked to and what he said while drinking.

Symptoms of drug withdrawal are likely to be

most severe among those with high levels of drug tolerance.

In large doses, alcohol is a ________; in small amounts, it is a ________.

depressant; depressant

A periodic, natural loss of consciousness that involves five distinct stages is known as

sleep.

Forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably

would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.

After sleeping for about an hour and a half, José enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is likely to

have very relaxed muscles.

University men were shown an erotic movie clip. Compared with those who thought they had recently consumed a nonalcoholic beverage, men who believed they had recently consumed an alcoholic beverage were

more likely to report having strong sexual fantasies and less likely to report having feelings of guilt.

While soundly asleep people cannot

learn tape-recorded messages to which they are repeatedly exposed.

After ingesting a small dose of a psychoactive drug, Laqueta experienced vivid visual hallucinations and felt as if she were separated from her own body. Laqueta most likely experienced the effects of

LSD.

Prior to age 9, children's dreams seem more like a slide show and less like an active story in which the dreamer is an actor. This best illustrates that the content of dreams reflects children's

cognitive development.

THC, the active ingredient in ________, is classified as a ________.

marijuana; hallucinogen

A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simultaneously with and yet separately from other thoughts is called

dissociation.

Boys who tend to be fearless and impulsive at age 6 are

more likely to smoke and more likely to drink alcohol as teens.

Research on susceptibility to hypnosis indicates that.

people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to become absorbed in the imaginary events of a novel or a movie.

The divided-consciousness theory of hypnosis receives support from evidence that

people who are highly responsive to hypnotic suggestion tend to become absorbed in the imaginary events of a novel or a movie.

Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with

REM sleep.

One biological basis for addiction involves brain activity in the ________ reward system.

dopamine

Repeated use of an opiate

decreases the brain's production of endorphins.

U.S. sixth graders ________ their friends' use of marijuana, and university students ________ their fellow students' enthusiasm for alcohol.

overestimate; overestimate

The cocktail party effect provides an example of

selective attention.

François was dismayed to discover that some of his football teammates were using drugs to enhance their footwork and endurance on the playing field. Which of the following drugs were the players most likely using?

amphetamines

By decreasing REM sleep, alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory. This disruption occurs because REM sleep

helps fix the day's experiences into permanent memories.

Compared with unconscious information processing, conscious information processing is relatively

slow and especially effective for solving new problems.

When cocaine is snorted, free-based, or injected, it produces a rush of euphoria by

blocking the reuptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.

Which research method did Jean Piaget use extensively in the process of developing his well-known theory of development?

the case study

As scientists, psychologists adopt an attitude of skepticism because they believe that:

claims about human behavior need to be supported with evidence.

Mrs. Blair concludes that boys do not read as well as girls because the vast majority of students in her remedial reading classes are boys. Mrs. Blair's conclusion best illustrates the danger of:

generalizing from select cases.

Hypotheses are best described as:

predictions.

Because Julie thinks very highly of herself, she assumes that she is well regarded by most of her acquaintances. This conclusion best illustrates:

the false consensus effect.

In order to exercise maximum control over the factors they are interested in studying, researchers engage in:

experimentation.

If psychologists discovered that people who live at the poverty level have more aggressive children than do wealthy people, this would clearly indicate that:

people's economic status and the aggressiveness of their children are negatively correlated.

The perception of a relationship between two variables where none exists is called:

illusory correlation.

If psychologists were to find that we are especially attracted to people whose traits are different from our own, this discovery would likely seem obvious and unsurprising to college students because:

students, like everyone else, have a tendency to exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past discoveries.

Scientists who defend the use of animals in experimental research typically claim that:

the well-being of humans should be placed above the well-being of animals.

Which of the following techniques would be the most effective way of investigating the relationship between the political attitudes and the economic status of North Americans?

the survey

Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?

correlation coefficient

Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, Glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psychology test. Glenda's experience best illustrates:

overconfidence

According to Professor Bolden, his experimental research demonstrates that eating an apple every day improves children's reading skills. How might he best offer further support for the dependability of this finding?

replication

Statistical tests are useful for making ________ regarding differences between groups.

inferences

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the:

synaptic gap.

The reticular formation extends from the spinal cord up to the

thalamus

Which part of a neuron is often encased by the myelin sheath?

axon

The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the:

myelin sheath

The cells that serve as the basic building blocks of the body's information processing system are called:

neurons

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