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xylem

Tissue containing cells that carry water and dissolved minerals up from the roots to the rest of the plant.

tracheids

Xylem cells in gymnosperms forming a connected network; when they die, their cell walls leave a channel for the transport of water.

translocation

The transport of water and carbohydrates; caused by transpirational pull, capillary action, and root pressure caused by water entering the roots.

phloem

Transports nutrients from the leaves to the rest of the plant. Made of tube-shaped cells.

ground tissue

Involved in storage and support.

pterophytes

Ferns; a phylum of tracheophytes that don't produce seeds

cambium

Tissue involved in growth. Can differentiate into xylem or phloem.

root hairs

Specialized cells of the root epidermis with thin-walled projections. Provide increased surface area for absorption.

palisade layer

Elongated cells under the upper epidermis of the leaf that contain chloroplasts.

spongy layer

Moist, loosely packed layer of cells containing chloroplasts.

stomata

Regulate the loss of water through transpiration and allow diffusion of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and oxygen between the leaf and the atmosphere.

apical meristem

Provide growth in the root tips and stems.

lateral meristem

Cambium; permits growth in diameter.

auxins

Responsible for phototropism and geotropism.

gibberellins

Stimulate rapid stem elongation, particularly in dwarf plants; inhibit the formation of new roots; stimulate the production of new phloem cells by the cambium; terminate the dormancy of seeds and buds.

cytokinins

Promote cell division.

ethylene

Stimulates ripening of fruit and induces aging.

antiauxins

Regulate the activity of auxins.

bulbs

Parts of the root that split to form new bulbs.

tubers

Modified underground stems that have buds that develop into new plants.

runners

Plant stems that run above and along the ground and form a new plant near the main plant.

rhizomes

Woody, underground stems that reproduce through new, upright stems that appear at intervals.

stamen

Male reproductive organ of the flower.

anther

Thin, stalklike filament with a sac at the top which produces pollen grains.

pistil

Flower's female organ; consists of the stigma, style, and ovary.

stigma

Sticky top part of the flower that catches the pollen.

style

Tubelike structure connecting the stigma and ovary.

epicotyl

Develops into leaves and upper part of the stem.

cotyledons

Seeds leaves that store food for the embryo.

hypocotyl

Develops into lower stem and root.

endosperm

Grows and feeds the embryo.

seed coat

Develops from the outer covering of the ovule.

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