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adenoids

lymphatic tissue in nasopharynx

alveolus (alveoli)

air sac in the lung

apex up the lung

tip or uppermost portion of the lung

base of the lung

lower portion of the lung

bronchioles

smallest branches of the bronchi

bronchus (bronchi)

branch of the trachea that is a passageway inbto the lung; bronchial tube

carbon dioxide

gas produced by body cells when oxygen and food combine

cilia

thin hairs attached to the mucous membrane of the epithelium lining of the respiratory tract

diaphragm

muscle separating the chest and abdomen

epiglottis

lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing

expiration

breathing out (exhalation)

glottis

slit-like opening to the larynx

hilum (of the lung)

midline region where th bronchi, blood vessels and nerves enter and exits the lungs

inspiration

breathing in (inhalation)

larynx

voice box; containing the vocal cords

lobe

division of a lung

mediastinum

region between the lungs in the chest cavity

nares

openings through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities

oxygen (O2)

gas that passes into the bloodsteam at the lungs and travels to all body cells

palatine tonsil

one of a pair of almond shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx

parietal pluera

outer fold of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall

pharnx

thoat; including the nasopharynx, oropharynx and larnygopharynx

pleura

double folded membrane surrounding each lung

pulmonary parenchyma

essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli

respiration

process of moving air into and out of the lungs; breathing

trachea

windpipe

visceral pleura

inner fold of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue

auscultation

listening to sounds within the body

percussion

tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure

rale

fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation when there is fluid in the alveoli

rhonchus (rhonchi)

loud rumbling sound heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum

stridor

strained, high pitched, relatively loud sound made on inspiration

wheeze

continuous high-pitched whistling sound heard when air is forced through a narrow space

croup

acute viral infection in infants and children

diptheria

acute infection of the troat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diptheria bacterium

epistaxis

nosebleed

pertussis

highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx and trachea

asthma

chronic inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction caused by bronchial edema

bronchiectasis

chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection in the lower lobes of the lung

chronic bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchi persisting over a long time

cystic fibrosis

inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick, mucous secretions that do not drain normally

atelectasis

incomplete expansion of alveoli; collapsed, functionless, airless lung

emphysema

hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls

lung cancer

malignant tumor rising from the lungs and bronchi

pneumoconiosis

abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection and bronchitis

pneumonia

acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus

pulmonary abscess

a large collection of pus in the lungs

pulmonary edema

swelling and fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles

pulmonary embolism

clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lungs

pulmonary fibrosis

formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs

sarcoidosis

chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause in which small nodules or tubercles develop in thelungs

tuberculosis (TB)

infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

pleural effusion

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space

pleurisy

inflammation of the pleura

pneumothorax

collection of air scas in the pleural space

antrocosis

coal dust accumulation in the lungs

asbestosis

asbestos particles accumulate in the lungs

bacilli (bacillus)

rod-shaped bacteria

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs

hydrothorax

collection of fluid in the pleural cavity

paroxysmal

pertaining to a sudden occurence, such as a spasm or seizure

pulmonary infarction

occurence of necrotic tissue in the lungs

purulent

containing pus

chest x-ray (CXR)

radiographic image on the thoracic cavity

computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest

computer-generated x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross section

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest

magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral and cross section planes

positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung

radioactive substance is injected and images reveal metobolic activity in the lung

ventilation-perfussion (V/Q) scan

detection device records radioactivity in the lung after injection of a radiosotope or inhalation of small radioactive gas

bronchoscopy

fiberoptic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes

endotracheal intubation

placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx and trachea to establish an airway

laryngoscopy

visual examination of the voice box

lung biopsy

removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination

pulmonary function tests (PFT's)

tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lung

thoracentesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space

thoracotomy

major surgical incision of the chest

thoracoscopy

visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope

tracheostomy

surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck

tuberculin test

determines past or present tuberculous infection based on a positive skin test

tube thoracostomy

chest tube is passed through an opeing in the skin of the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion

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