Chapter 10 Test Review

Created by gleeannie 

Upgrade to
remove ads

58 terms · biology

DNA and RNA are composed of what monomer units?

nucleotides

What is the shape of a DNA molecule?

double helix

What is the sugar in found in DNA?

deoxyribose

What is the sugar found in RNA?

ribose

What is the nitrogenous base found in RNA but not in DNA?

uracil

What part of the nucleotide is found in the center of a DNA molecule?

nitrogenous base

What kind of bond holds the nucleotides together in the strands of a DNA molecule?

hydrogen

In a DNA double helix, thymine bonds with what? cytosine?

adenine; guanine

The bonding of A with T and C with G is called what?

complementary base pairing

In complementary base pairing, what part of the nucleotides link together?

nitrogenous bases

If adenine makes up 30% of the bases in a DNA double helix, what percent of the bases are thymine, cytosine, and guanine?

T= 30%
C= 20%
G= 20%

During replication, the two strands of DNA separate at a point called a/an

origin of replication

During replication, the two strands of DNA separate at a point called an origin of replication to make what?

replication bubble

The enzyme that adds new nucleotides during DNA replication is called what?

DNA polymerase

What are the steps of DNA replication?

1. Begins at the origin of replications where the DNA strands separate
2. Each parent strand becomes a template for the complementary base pairs of the daughter strand
3. DNA polymerase covalently bonds nucleotides
4. Replication goes in both directions forming bubbles which progress until they join and you have two separate identical daughter DNA molecules

If the sequence of bases on one strand of DNA is TCGATAC, what is the sequence of bases on the complementary strand?

AGCTATG

If DNA in a cell is radioactively tagged and the cell divides, how much of the DNA will be radioactive in the daughter cells?

half

What is the process that converts the information stored in DNA to RNA?

transcription

Where does transcription take place in a eukaryotic cell?

nucleus

What is the process of assembling amino acids to form a polypeptide called?

translation

Where does translation take place in a eukaryotic cell?

cytoplasm

What cell organelle is associated with translation?

ribosome

A large region of DNA that directs the formation of a protein is called a ________?

gene

Does the genetic code vary among organisms or is it constant?

constant

What three kinds of RNA are involved in protein synthesis?

mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA

Which kind of RNA molecule bonds to one specific type of amino acid?

tRNA

What enzyme is responsible for transcription?

RNA polymerase

How does transcription begin?

when DNA polymerase binds to the promotor on DNA

What sequence ends transcription?

terminator sequence

What are the additional nucleotides that are added to the ends of the RNA transcript to protect the RNA called?

cap and tail

What are the coding sequences in mRNA called?

exons

What are the noncoding sequences in mRNA called?

introns

What is the process that joins the mRNA continuous coding sequence (the part that actually codes for protein) before it leaves the eukaryotic nucleus called?

RNA splicing

What is a triplet of nucleotides (group of 3 sequential bases) on an mRNA called?

codon

An mRNA codon codes for what?

polypeptide

How many nucleotides make up a codon?

3

What would be the sequence of bases in mRNA transcribed from the following DNA sequence: TACGCAAT

AUGCGUUA

A codon found on mRNA base pairs what on tRNA molecule?

anticodon

Once translation (polypeptide synthesis) starts, what is the order of the three main steps by which it elongates?

1. codon recognition
2. peptide bond formation
3. translocation of the tRNA and mRNA through the ribosome

Promotors and terminators are found in what molecule?

DNA

Start and stop codons are found in what molecule?

mRNA

What are changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA called?

mutations

What kind of mutation in a DNA sequence may or may not alter the amino acid in a polypeptide?

base substitution

Removal of nucleotides in a DNA sequence results in what kind of mutation?

deletion

Addition of nucleotides in a DNA sequence results in what kind of mutation?

insertion

What does the cell use to repair damaged DNA?

enzymes DNA polymerase

What is the ultimate source of the diversity of life?

mutations

What kind of nucleic acid makes up viral genomes?

RNA or DNA, but not both. RNA in plants. RNA or DNA in animals

What are viruses that infect bacteria called?

bacteriophages

Viral replication, in which the host cell bursts following each cycle, is called what?

lytic

Viral nucleic acid becomes integrated into the host cell's DNA during what viral cycle?

lysogenic

Do most plants have DNA or RNA genomes?

RNA

What kind of genome is found in retroviruses?

RNA

What is an example of a retrovirus?

HIV

What enzyme is part of the HIV virus and required for its replication?

reverse transcriptase

What is the purpose of the enzyme reverse transcriptase?

RNA -> DNA

How is it possible for some of a host cell's genome to end up in a virus?

Lysogenic cycle combines viruses DNA with host cell when it goes back to lytic cycle to separate, some of the host DNA might stay with virus

Describe the similarities and differences between DNA and RNA.

Similar: made up of nucleotides
Different: DNA has thymine, deoxyribose, is double stranded, holds genetic code; RNA has uracil, ribose single stranded, makes protein

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set