Terrorist group of white southern men who used violence and intimidation to keep blacks from voting.
(1877-1954) Time when blacks had many laws keeping them "separate but equal".
Jim Crow Laws
Makes it legal to segregate people with colored skin
Plessie vs Ferguson
(1896) Arrested for breaking the law and
Sues state of Louisiana.
Says 14th amendment protects his right to ride in white car
Goes to supreme court.
Supreme Court says segregation laws ARE constitutional; facilities "separate but equal"
Booker T. Washington
Says if blacks work hard and prove selves, will be treated equally. Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama for African Americans.
First black man to get PhD at Harvard. Disagrees with Booker T. Thinks they deserve equality immediately. Helped found NAACP.
Ida B. Wells
Drew attention to the violence against blacks through writing. Also helped found NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Challenged Jim Crow laws.
Colored people begin to move to the North and West from South due to racial violence and the KKK
Sweaft vs Painter
(1950) University of Texas had to admit blacks to their law school because the separate school was not equal.
Brown vs Board of Education
(1954) Linda Brown's father sued for equal protection.
Presents psychological evidence in supreme court. Proved that the black children thought less of themselves because of segregation.
1965 Voting Rights Act
This act suspended the use of literacy tests and authorized the appointment of federal examiner who could order the registration of blacks in states and counties where fewer than 50% were registered, or voted previously.
Converted to Americanized Muslim while in jail. Urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary. He was assassinated in February 1965 by Nation of Islam leaders.
Black Power Movement
Made of mostly men and some women. Tired of being beat up. Became slightly more aggressive and flashy. Wanted African Americans to take control of their own communities.
1964 riots which started in Watts section of Los Angeles. 34 people killed. Spurred huge riots around the country.