ten percent plan
Lincoln's reconstruction plan where if 10% of the voters of a state took an oath of loyalty to the Union, the state could rejoin the Union. The state would have to adopt a new state constitution that bans slavery. All white Southerners (except for CSA leaders) were pardoned if they swore loyalty to the Union.
Extreme Republicans who argued Congress should start Reconstruction, not the president.
A leading RR who declared Southern institutions must be broken.
Reconstruction bill passed by Congress. To rejoin the Union, states had to: 1) 50% of white males had to swear loyalty to the Union. 2) State constitutional conventions could be held, but only white men who swore loyalty to the Union could vote. 3) Former Confederate leaders denied the right to hold public office. 4) State constitutions had to abolish slavery. Lincoln refused to sign this.
This bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools. Later Congress allowed this bureau to establish courts to prosecute those who violate the rights of African Americans.
a person who has been freed from slavery
Our American Cousin
the play Lincoln was watching when he was assassinated in Ford's Theater
John Wilkes Booth
An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.
The house where Lincoln died. The man who owned the house was a tailor.
Lincoln's Democratic VP who became president upon his assassination. He wanted to punish dominating slaveholders in the South. He didn't care about African-Americans. He was one of the targets of the conspiracy to assassinate high-ranking officials. First president to be impeached
Andrew Jackson's plan of Reconstruction where most Southerners get amnesty if they swear loyalty to the Union. High-ranking Confederate officials & wealthy landowners could only get pardoned if they applied for amnesty personally. He opposed black suffrage, and believed in popular sovereignty if states wanted to rejoin the Union.
Amendment to the Constitution that abolished slavery in all parts of the U.S.
Port Royal, Virginia
City where Booth fled to.
Secretary of State who was one of the targets in the conspiracy to assassinate high-ranking officials.
VP of CSA. One of the many Southern congressmen who Northern congressmen refused to accept.
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Act that granted full citizenship to blacks & gave the federal government power to intervene in state affairs to protect their rights. This overturned the Black Codes. The Dred Scott decision was overturned.
Amendment to the Constitution that granted full citizenship to anyone born in the U.S. Prevent CSA officials f/holding office unless pardoned by 2/3 of Congress. CSA states could only be readmitted if they accepted this.
Only ex-CSA state that accepted the 14th amendment.
First Reconstruction Act
Creation of new governments in the 10 southern states that didn't ratify the 14th. Divided the states into 5 military districts under a military com. until new gov formed.
Tenure of Office Act
Law passed by Congress to limit the president's power. It prohibited the president from removing government officials, including his own Cabinet members, without Senate approval. This is because Congress wanted to keep his cabinet members, who were actually Lincoln's cabinet members. Johnson violated this act, and thus was impeached. However, he was not removed from office by one vote.
Secretary of War that Johnson suspended when Congress was not in session, w/o Senate approval. When Congress returned, Johnson fired him.
NY Democrat who believed Congress was trying to remove Johnson over a mere difference of opinion. Democratic nominee of 1876 election. Supposedly got more electoral votes, but lost b/c commission voted in his opponent's favor.
Senator who said Congress turned the veto into a weapon.
Ulysses S. Grant
Republican nominee for the 1868 election. He won. There was corruption in his government. He won again in 1872.
Democratic nominee for the 1868 election. He was the former New York government. He lost.
Prohibited the federal/state governments from denying suffrage b/c of race.
Civil War Amendments
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. made in reconstruction era
an African American who served in the Senate representing Mississippi, he was clergyman and teacher, became the nation's first black senator in 1870, he completed the unfinished term of former Confederate president, Jefferson Davis for one year.
African American who was elected to serve in the Senate; the first black to serve full term in Senate. He was a runaway slave.
white Southerner supporting Reconstruction policies after the Civil War usually for self-interest
Came from Germany and settled in WI. Join the Republican Party and helped Congress rebuild the nation.
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
Group that wore black sheets & hoods, terrified blacks through arson and murder. In Jackson County, this group killed 150+ people in 3 years. Violence was far more prominent before elections, to scare them into not voting. Congress passed laws to try and stop this, but it didn't work because whites refused to prosecute those accused of breaking such laws.
including Whites and African Americans
Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina
States in the South that had laws requiring integrated schools. [in abc order] These laws were unenforced.
Poor people contracted with landowners to work the land and get a share of the crop
One of these state's electoral votes were disputed in the 1876 election.
The use of federal troops to support Reconstruction government. Southerners protested this.
Party formed in 1872 (split from the ranks of the Republican Party) which argued that the Reconstruction task was complete and should be set aside. Significantly dampered further Reconstructionist efforts.
LR nominee in 1872 presidential election. Had Democratic support, even though he opposed them. Lost the election.
Amnesty Act of 1872
Pardoned most former Confederates. Almost all white Southerners could vote & hold office.
North Carolina, Virginia
States with most white voters. [in abc order]
House of Representatives
Part of the federal government the Democrats gained control over by 1875.
Republican nominee in the election of 1876. Supposedly lost, but won b/c commission voted in his favor.
Name of the Congressional group that helped resolve the dispute regarding the 1876 election. Voted in Hayes's favor.
Compromise of 1877
Agreement that included various favors to the South. The new government gave more aid, withdrew remaining troops. Democrats promise maintain African-American rights. Hayes stopped reconstruction.
Editor of Atlanta Constitution headed group to build "New South"
North Carolinian. Headed American Tobacco Company and controlled the tobacco industry.
bankers, merchants, industrialists
Members of the new ruling class in the South. [in abc order]
What Democrats called themselves because they saved the South f/Republican rule.
A fee to vote in some Southern states to restrict voting by African-Americans.
Requires that a person prove that he or she is able to read and write in order to vote
Jim Crow laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Plessy vs. Ferguson
(1896) The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendemnt) provide that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.
Allowed people who failed the literacy test to vote if their fathers or grandfathers voted before Reconstruction. African-Americans couldn't vote until '67, so they were excluded.
Where an angry mob hunted and hung a person, usually an African-American
W.E.B. Du Bois
Said "The slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again towards slavery.