A political party formed by supporters of Andrew Jackson after the presidential election of 1824.
A political party formed in 1834 by opponents of Andrew Jackson and who supported a strong legislature.
Trail of Tears
An 800-mile forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Territory. It resulted the deaths of almost one-fourth of the Cherokee people.
A 2,000-mile trail stretching through the Great Plains from western Missouri to the Oregon Country.
Santa Fe Trail
An important trade trail west from Idependence, Missouri, to Santa Fe, New Mexico.
A member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
A belief shared by many Americans in the mid-1800s that the United States should expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean.
A gold-seeker who moved to California during the Gold Rush.
To search for gold.
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s.
A process developed by Eli Whitney in the 1790s that called for making each part of a machine exactly the same.
The efficient production of large numbers of identical goods.
Workers' organization that try to improve working conditions.
The refusal of workers to perform their jobs until employers meet their demands.
A system developed by Alfred Lewis Vail for the telegraph that used a certain combination of dots and dashes to represent each letter of the alphabet.
Indian Removal Act
A congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Misissippi river.
President Andrew Jackson's group of informal advisers. So called because they often met in the White House kitchen.
Nicknamed Old Hickory, he was an American hero in the Battle of New Orleans. As commander of the Tennessee militia,he defeated the Creek Indians, securing 23 acres of land. His election as the seventh president of the U.S. marked an era of Democracy known as the Jacksonian Democracy.
Martin Van Buren
American politician and secratary of state under Andrew Jackson, later became the eighth president of the United States.
William Henry Harrison
American politician, served as the governor of Indian Territory, fought Tecumseh in the Battle of Tippecanoe, ninth president of the United States.
Native American leader of Fox and Sauk Indians, resisted the U.S.-ordered removal of Indian nations from Illinois and raided settlements and fought the U.S. army.
Florida Seminole leader, he resisted removal by the U.S.government despite an earlier treaty that Seminole leaders had been forced to sign. He was eventually captured and died in prison.
In 1830, he founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in western New York.
American religious leader who headed the Mormon Church after the murder of Joseph Smith, he moved the community to Utah, leading thousands along what became known as the Mormon Trail to the main settlement at Salt Lake City.
Stephen F. Austin
American colonizer in Texas, he was imprisoned for urging Texas statehood after Santa Anna suspended Mexico's constitution. After helping Texas win independence from Mexico, he became secratary of state for the Texas Republic.
James K. Polk
Eleventh president of the United States, he settled the Oregon boundary with Great Britain and successfully conducted the Mexican-American War.
A group of western travelers who were stranded in the Sierra Nevada during the winter of 1846-1847. Only 45 of the Party's 87 members survived.
American inventor whose cotton gin changed harvesting procedures and enabled large increases in cotton production, he introduced the technology of mass production through the development of interchangeable parts in gun-making.
American engineer and inventor, he built the first commercially successful full-sized steamboat, the "Clermont," which led to the develoment of commercial steamboat ferry services for goods and people.
American ironworks manufacturer who designed and built "Tom Thumb," the first American locomotive.
Samuel F. B. Morse
American artist and inventor, he applied scientists' discoveries of electricity and magnetism to develop the telegraph, which soon sent messages all across the country.
American industrialist, he developed a steel plow to ease difficulty of turning thick soil on the Great Plains.
American inventor and industrialist, he invented the mechanical reaper and harvesting machine that quickly cut down wheat.
American inventor, patented improved sewing machine. By 1860, he was the largest manufacturer of sewing machines in the country.