types of bone

55 terms by svanosdol 

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Long Bone

A type of bone that is longer than it is wide. Examples include the femur, humerus, and phalanges.

Short Bone

a bone that is roughly cube shaped (eg wrist and ankle bones)

Irregular Bone

Bones with complicated shapes (e.x., vertebrae and hip bones)

Flat Bone

A type of bone with a thin flattened shape. Examples include the scapula, ribs, and pelvic bones.

Compact Bone

Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone

Spongy Bone

Layer of Bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone

Axial Skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs

Appendicular Skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs

Diaphysis

shaft of a long bone

Epiphyseal Plate

The cartilaginous region between the epiphysis and the diaphysis of a growing bone.

Epiphysis

the end of a long bone

Periosteum

a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles

Articular Cartilage

The cartilage pad that covers the surface of a bone inside a joint cavity

Red Marrow

a mixture of mature and immature red blood cells, white blood cells, and the stem cells that produce them. Found in "spongy bone"

Yellow Marrow

made up of fat cells for long term storage. Found in the "Medullary Cavity"

Long Bone

A type of bone that is longer than it is wide. Examples include the femur, humerus, and phalanges.

Short Bone

a bone that is roughly cube shaped (eg wrist and ankle bones)

Irregular Bone

Bones with complicated shapes (e.x., vertebrae and hip bones)

Flat Bone

A type of bone with a thin flattened shape. Examples include the scapula, ribs, and pelvic bones.

Compact Bone

Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone

Spongy Bone

Layer of Bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone

Axial Skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs

Appendicular Skeleton

the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs

Diaphysis

shaft of a long bone

Epiphyseal Plate

The cartilaginous region between the epiphysis and the diaphysis of a growing bone.

Epiphysis

the end of a long bone

Periosteum

a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles

Articular Cartilage

The cartilage pad that covers the surface of a bone inside a joint cavity

Red Marrow

a mixture of mature and immature red blood cells, white blood cells, and the stem cells that produce them. Found in "spongy bone"

Yellow Marrow

made up of fat cells for long term storage. Found in the "Medullary Cavity"

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells.

Osteoblasts

Bone-forming cells. Responsible for osteogenesis.

Osteoclasts

Bone-destroying cells.

Lacunae

A small spaces between the lamellae. Each contains an osteocyte.

Lamellae

A layer of bone tissue/matrix

Haversian Canal

or Central Canal, contains one or more blood vessels. Runs parallel to the bone surface.

Volkmann Canals

Canals perpendicular to the surface of the bone. They carry blood to the deeper osteons and marrow cavity

Tuberosity

large rounded projection; may be roughened.

Crest

narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent

Trochanter

Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process. (Only on the Femur)

Line

Narrow ridge of bone; less prominent then a crest

Tubercle

Small, rounded projection or process

Epicondyle

Raised area on or above a condyle

Spine

Sharp, slender, often pointed projection.

Process

Any bony prominence

Head

Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

Facet

smooth, nearly flat articular surface

Condyle

rounded articular projection

Ramus

Armlike bar of bone

Meatus

Canal-like passageway

Sinus

Cavity in bone, filled with air and lined with mucus membrane

Fossa

shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface.

Groove

furrow

Fissure

Narrow, slitlike opening

Foramen

Round or oval opening through bone.

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