Researchers use __________ to help them see and interpret their observations.
Once researchers have gathered their _______, they must __________ them. One simple way of visually representing data is to use a ___________. It is important to read the _____________ and note the ___________ to avoid being misled by misrepresented data.
data; organize; bar graph; scale labels; range
The three measures of central tendency are the ___________, the ___________ and the ___________.
mode; median; mean
The most frequently occurring score in a distribution is called the ___________.
The mean is computed as the ______ _______of all the scores divided by the _____________ of scores.
total sum; number
The median is the score at the ____________ percentile.
When a distribution is lopsided, or _________, the ____________ (mean/median/mode) can be biased by a few extreme scores.
Averages derived from scores with ________ (high/low) variability are more reliable than those with ___________ (high/low) variability.
The measures of variation include the _______ and the __________________ _________________.
range; standard deviation
The range is computed as the ____________.
differences between the lowest and highest scores
The range provides a(n) _________ (crude/accurate) estimate of variation because it ___________ (is/is not) influenced by extreme scores.
The standard deviation is a ___________ (more accurate/less accurate) measure of variation than the range. Unlike the range, the standard deviation ___________ (does/does not) use information from each score in the distribution.
more accurate; does
The symmetrical, bell-shaped distribution in which most scores fall near the __________ with fewer and fewer near the extremes is called the ___________ ____________.
mean; normal curve (normal distribution)
It is safer to generalize from a __________ sample than from a _______________ sample.
Averages are more reliable when they are based on scores with __________ (high/low) variability.
Small samples provide a ________ (more/less) reliable basis for generalizing than large samples.
Tests of statistical ____________ are used to estimate whether observed differences are real - that is, to make sure that they are not simply the result of _________ variation. The differences are probably real if the sample averages are __________ and the difference between them is _____________ (relatively small/relatively large).
significance; chance; reliable; relatively large
Statistical significance does not necessarily indicate the importance or __________ significance of a difference or result.