leukocytes capability to follow chemical "scent" where chemical concentration is the highest
leukocyte, granulocyte; 50% of WBC; faint granules, phagocytes associated with acute infections
granules within neutrophils that are antibiotic-like proteins that poke holes in cell membranes
leukocyte, ganulocyte; 1-4% of WBC; dark red granules which are enzymes that kill parasitic worms; they decrease the inflammatory response
leukocyte, granulocyte; 0.5% of WBC; blue/black granules: contain histamine; increase the inflammatory response
leukocyte, agranulocyte; 40% of WBC; B and T cells of immunity; not too much larger than RBC; sliver of pale bluish cytoplasm can be seen
leukocyte; agranulocyte; 5% of WBC; called macrophages if in tissues; Phagocytes associated with chronic infections; pale blue cytoplasm; c-shaped or round nucleus
fragments of a large cell called the megakaryocyte; "bubbles of membrane with liquid in them"
55% of the volume of whole blood; 90% water: Ions, nutrients, wastes, hormones, oxygen, & carbon dioxide; 8% albumin (protein for viscosity & buffer)
the stoppage of blood flow; contains 3 phases: vascular spasm, formation of the platelet plug, and coagulation
1st stage of hemostasis: constriction of the blood vessel; reduces flow up to 30 minutes (only 30 due to fatigue)
broken endothelial cells
a substep of the formation of the platelet plug which exposes collagen which platelets stick to.
a substep of the formation of the platelet plug in which platelets release serotonin and thromboxane which enhance the vascular spasm and ADP causes additional platelets to aggregate (stick).
the 3rd stage of hemostasis: 3 events ocur in the transformation of liquid blood to a gel
formation of one substance causes the formation of another which in turn causes formation of yet another
3 steps in sequence: 1. formation of prothrombin activator(PA): an enzyme (need factor X plus Ca++ plus thromboplastin to get PA, 2. conversion of prothrombin to thrombin (another enzyme), 3. conversion of fibrinogen (soluble plasma protein) to fibrin (insoluble protein threads)
the clot shrinks, bringing cut edges closer together; platelets act like smooth muscle cells, squeezing down on themselves and making the clot shrink