BIOL 228 CH17--Blood

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albumin

Found in plasma, the non-living viscous fluid part of the blood

7.35-7.45

The pH of blood

5-6 liters

The amount of blood in an adult male

cytoskeleton

maintains the shape of erythrocytes

45

erythrocyte percent of blood volume

hemoglobin

consists of 4 hemes (contain iron) plus 1 globin (protein)

transport oxygen

function of hemoglobin

erythropoietin

from kidneys; stimulates RBC precursor cells in marrow to divide

120 days

lifespan of RBCs

bilirubin

the unusable part of heme; disposed of by the liver

leukocyte

white blood cell

1

leukocyte percent of blood volume

chemotaxis

leukocytes capability to follow chemical "scent" where chemical concentration is the highest

margination

leukocytes line up against BV wall

diapedesis

the capability of leukocyte to squeeze thru capillary wall into tissue areas

amoeboid movement

the capability of leukocyte to move by itself

neutrophil

leukocyte, granulocyte; 50% of WBC; faint granules, phagocytes associated with acute infections

defensins

granules within neutrophils that are antibiotic-like proteins that poke holes in cell membranes

eosinophil

leukocyte, ganulocyte; 1-4% of WBC; dark red granules which are enzymes that kill parasitic worms; they decrease the inflammatory response

basophil

leukocyte, granulocyte; 0.5% of WBC; blue/black granules: contain histamine; increase the inflammatory response

histamine

potent vasodilator: increases diameter of BV; found within basophils

agranulocyte

a leukocyte with no distinct granules

lymphocyte

leukocyte, agranulocyte; 40% of WBC; B and T cells of immunity; not too much larger than RBC; sliver of pale bluish cytoplasm can be seen

monocyte

leukocyte; agranulocyte; 5% of WBC; called macrophages if in tissues; Phagocytes associated with chronic infections; pale blue cytoplasm; c-shaped or round nucleus

platelets

fragments of a large cell called the megakaryocyte; "bubbles of membrane with liquid in them"

plasma

55% of the volume of whole blood; 90% water: Ions, nutrients, wastes, hormones, oxygen, & carbon dioxide; 8% albumin (protein for viscosity & buffer)

hemostasis

the stoppage of blood flow; contains 3 phases: vascular spasm, formation of the platelet plug, and coagulation

vascular spasm

1st stage of hemostasis: constriction of the blood vessel; reduces flow up to 30 minutes (only 30 due to fatigue)

formation of the platelet plug

2nd stage of hemostasis: temporary seal--gives us more time

broken endothelial cells

a substep of the formation of the platelet plug which exposes collagen which platelets stick to.

platelets degranulate

a substep of the formation of the platelet plug in which platelets release serotonin and thromboxane which enhance the vascular spasm and ADP causes additional platelets to aggregate (stick).

coagulation

the 3rd stage of hemostasis: 3 events ocur in the transformation of liquid blood to a gel

procoagulant

enhance coagulation

anticoagulant

decrease coagulation

formation of clot

usually takes 3-6 minutes to start; part of the process of coagulation

enzyme cascade

formation of one substance causes the formation of another which in turn causes formation of yet another

coagulation cascade

3 steps in sequence: 1. formation of prothrombin activator(PA): an enzyme (need factor X plus Ca++ plus thromboplastin to get PA, 2. conversion of prothrombin to thrombin (another enzyme), 3. conversion of fibrinogen (soluble plasma protein) to fibrin (insoluble protein threads)

clot retraction

the clot shrinks, bringing cut edges closer together; platelets act like smooth muscle cells, squeezing down on themselves and making the clot shrink

fibrinolysis

dispose of the clot when repair is nearing completion; healing tissues release Plasminogen Activator which starts another cascade to dissolve the clot.

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