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ch1-4 microbolody

a bacterial cell is placed in distilled water. Which of the following will happen

the cell will gain water

the process of bring a solid substance into the cell is known as

phagocytosis

The filament and basal body are associated with which external structures found in some bacterial cells?

flagella

Which of the following processes can be either specific or non-specific depending upon the particular moleules that are transported?

facilitated diffusion

a periplasmic space is found in which of the following

gram-negitive cells only

PHB is associat4ed with which of the following structures in the cytoplasm of some bacteria?

inclusions

Archaeal flagella ______________?

roate as bacterial flagella do.

a bacterial cell processes a gycocalyx. which of the following is not true?

it will be engulfed more quickly by defensive cell of the host

which of the following is not a basic process of life?

HIBERNATION

IF A EUKARYOTIC CELL SUFFERS DAMAGE TO ITS MITOCHONDRIA WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING Processes of life would be most immediately affected?

metabolism

secretory vesicles are associated with which of the folloing?

golgi body

the hami of some archaea are used for chich wrocesses

attachment

the presence of a glycoalyx would not be expected in which of the following?

plant cells

which of the following is not a characteristic of a eukaryotic cell?

smaller than prokaryotes

the archaea are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways except

the nucleotides that make up the dna

which of the following would be expected to be present in a bio-medical analysis of an archaeal cell?

archael cells have cytoplasmic membranes containng branched hydrocarbons as well as membrane proteins

what is not found in the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell

porins

TF is a centrosome a membranous organelle within a eukaryotic cell

false

TF sterols are a component of the eukaryotic cell

false

A bacterial cell stains positive with the acid-fast stain. which of the following is not true?

some gram postive cells contain waxy lipids that make them hard to stain with the gram stain. these cells are commonly members of the genus Mycob acterium

a scientist is using an objective lense of 40x magnification on his microscope. if the ocular lense magnifies 10x , what is the total magnification being used to visualize the specimen?

400x

a thin film of microorganism on a slide is called a

smear

which of the following groups of organisms does not belong in the domain eukarya?

bacteria and archaea

plaques are associated with which method of laboratory identification of microorganisms

phage typing

what is another name for negative stain?

a capsule stain

the traditional defination fo a species does not work very well for asexual organisms because

they generally do not arise as a result of interbreeding

what microscope techniques does not produce a naturally colored image

transmission electron microscope

staining is an important way to improve which of the following aspect of microscopy?

resolution and contrast

put the following steps of specimen preperation and staining in order 1, application fo staing dyes 2 fixation 3 smearpreperation

321

if a microbiologist omited the decolorizer from a gram-stained smear, which of the following would happen

all cells in the smear would be purple

taxonomy consists of all of the following activities except

fixation

which of the following types of microscopes can magnify more than 2000x

a transmission electron microscope

the reagents crystal violet , iodine and safranin are all associated with which of the following staining procedures

the gram stain

which of the following staing procedures does not involve basic dyes?

the negative stain

leeuwenhoke's microscope had a resolving power of one mcrometer this means that

the microscope could distinguish objects that were more than one micrometer apart

put the following taxonomic groups in order, from broadest group to most specific 1 phylum 2 genus 3 family 4 order

1,4,3,2

which of the following types of microscopes reveals the surface features of extremely small objects

atomic force microscope

a microbiologist is using hear to drive the stain carbolfuchsin into a smear. which of the following staining procedures is being used?

the acid-fast stain

which of the follwoing is not equil to 20 milimeters

5,000,000 nanometers

which of the follwoing is one-billionth of a meter?

a nanometer

KH2PO4 acts as a buffer by

absorbs excess hydrogen ions

which of the following is not a type of lipid

peptidoglycan

pure water has a neutural pH because

it dissociates into equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

in discussions of atomic mass , electrons are often ignored because

their mass makes a negligible contribution to the atoms overall mass

all of the following are sources of organic acids except

baking soda

methane is classified as a compound because

it contains atoms of more than one element

what is the common trait of ALL lipids

they are hydrophobic

in symbol R-OH, the R stands for the ____ part of the molecule.

the variable

an endothermic reaction ___

absorbs energy

which of the following subatomic particles does not have a charge

neutrons

a synthesis reaction is also which one of the following types of reactions?

endothermic

two atoms vastly different electronegatives can form which of the following?

in an ionic bond the extreme difference between the electronegatives of the two atoms creates a full charge on each atom, resulting in an attractive force that creates the bond

if you know that a particular chemical reaction involves the production of smaller molecules from the breakdown of larger molecules, which of the following statements would you expect to be true?

energy will be released making it an exothermic reaction. a molecule of water will be consumed in this reaction.

sucrose is an example of which of the following

a disaccharide

if you know that sodium chloride molecules contain ionic bonds, which of the following electronegatives values would be appropriate for the elements sodium and chloride?

0.9 and 3.0

an oxygen atom has 2 electron shells and 6 valence electrons. how many total electrons does this atom have

8

carbon has an electronegitivity of 2.5 and hydrogen has electronegegativity of .1: therefore, methane, which is composed solely of carbon and hydrogen, contains which of the following types of bonds

non-polar covalent bonds

when the nucleus of an atom contains a constant number of protons but a variable number of neutrons, the atom is called a(n)

isotope

which of the follwoing is the most alkaline pH?

pH 13.0

who proposed the idea that cells can be classified in one of three major groups

Woese

which of the following is not an example of fungus

algae

Koch's work involving anthrax was significant because it was the first tme

a bacterium has been proven to cause a disease

which of the following groups of scientists did not contribute to research in microbial genetics?

winogradsky and beijernick

all of the following are taxonomic kingdoms that were recognized by linnaeus except

protozoa

spallanzani;s experiments concerning spontaneous generation were not universally accepted because

he eliminated air form his flasks by sealing them

which of following scientists showed that fermentation does not require living cells?

buchner

microbiologists study parasitic worms because

they cause disease that are diagnosed by finding microscopic eggs in clinical specimens

what was leeuwenhoek's contribution to the science of microbiology?

he was the first person to see microbes.

which of the following is true statement concerning bacteria and archaea?

no archea are known to cause disease in humans

which of the following scietist contributed to the discovery of widely effective chemotherapeutic agents in 20th centery?

domagk

how are the bacteria and the archea different form all the other cellular microbes

they have no nucleus

whose expedriments seemingly proved the existence of a "life force"

needham

what did the work of lister and ehrlich have in common

they both explored the use of chemicals in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases

modern biologist hav to revise linnaeus' system of taxonomy because

he grouped all organisms into only two categories

which of the following is an incorrect pairing

gram : cholera

all of the following individuals showed that cleanliness played a role in human disease except

jenner

put the following steps of Koch's postulates in order: 1 the infectious agent must be isolated and grown outside the host 2 the infectious agent caused the desease when it is introduced to a healthy, susceptible animal 3 the infectious agent must be found in every case of the disease 4 the infectious agent must be found in the diseased experimental host

3, 1,2,4

which of the following fields of modern microbiology is not concerneed with the genetic characteristics of a cell

bioremediation

a microorganism has the following characteristics : eukaryotic , multicellular, has cell walls, and grows in long lilaments. what is its general classification

fungus

Algae

eukaryotic unicellular or multicellular photosynthetic organism with simple reproductive structures

archae

In Woese's taxonomy, domain which includes all prokaryotic cells having archaeal rRNA sequences

bacteria

prokaryotic microorganisms typically having cell walls composed of peptidoglycan. In Woese's taxonomy, domain which includes all prokaryotic cells having bacterial rRNA sequences.

biochemistry

branch of chemistry which studies the chemical reactions of living things

biotechnology

branch of microbiology in which microbes are manipulated to manufacture useful products.

environmental microbiology

branch of microbiology studying the role of microorganisms in soil, water, or other habitats.

epidemiology

the study of the occurrence, distribution, and spread of diseases in humans

etiology

the study of causation of disease.

eukaryote

any organism made up of cells containing a nucleus composed of genetic material surrounded by a distinct membrane. Classification includes animals, plants, algae, fungi, and protozoa.

fungi

eukaryotic organisms that have cell walls and obtain food from other organisms.

gene therapy

the use of recombinant DNA technology to insert a missing gene or repair a defective gene in human cells.

immunology

study of the bodies specific defenses against pathogens.

microorganisms

an organism too small to be seen without a microscope.

mold

a typically multicellular fungus that grows as long fillaments called hyphae and reproduces by means of spores

molecular biology

branch of biology combining aspects of biochemistry, cell biology, and genetics to explain cell functions at the molecular level, particularly via the use of genome sequencing.

prokaryote

any unicellular microorganism that lacks a nucleus. Classification includes bacteria and archaea.

taxonomic system

a system for naming and grouping similar organisms together

yeast

a unicellular, typically oval or round fungus that usually reproduces asexually by budding.

acid

compound that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions.

amino acid

a monomer of polypeptides

anion

a negatively charged ion

anabolism

all of the synthesis reactions in an organism taken together.

atom

the smallest chemical unit of matter.

base

molecule that binds with hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.

buffer

a substance, such as protein, that prevents drastic changes in ph.

carbohydrates

organic macromolecule consisting of atoms carbon, hydorgen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.

catabolism

all the decomposition reactions in an organsim taken together

cation

a positively charged ion.

compound

a molecule containing atoms of more than one element.

covalent bond

the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms.

dehydration synthesis

the type of synthesis reaction in which to smaller molecules are joined together by a covalent bond, and a water molecule is formed

disaccharide

carbohydrate consisting of two monosaccharide molecules joined together

electrolyte

any hydrated cation or anion; can conduct electricity through a solution.

electron

a negatively charged subatomic particle

element

matter that is composed of a single type of atom

endothermic

a synthesis reaction requiring energy

exothermic

a decomposition reaction that releases energy

functional group

an arrangement of atoms common to all members of a class of organic molecules, such as the amine group found in all amino acids.

hydrogen bond

the electrical attraction between a partially charged hydrogen atom and a full or partial negative charge on a different region of the same molecule or another molecule. Hydrogen bonds confer unique properties to water molecules.

hydrophilic

attracted to water.

hydrophobic

insoluble in water

ionic bond

a type of bond formed from the attraction of opposite electrical charges. Electrons are not shared.

lipid

any of a diverse group of organic macromolecules not composed of monomers and insoluble in water.

matter

anything that takes up space and has mass.

metabolism

the sum of all chemical reactions, both anabolic and catabolic, within and organism

molecule

two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond.

monomer

a sub unit of a macromolecule such as a protein

monosaccharides

a monomer of carbohydrate, such as a molecule of glucose(simple sugar).

neutron

an uncharged subatomic particle.

nonpolar covalent bond

type of chemical bond in which there is equal sharing of electrons between atoms with similar electronegativities.

nucleotide

monomer of a nucleic acid.

peptide bond

a covalent bond between amino acids in proteins.

polar covalent bond

type of bond in which there is unequal sharing of electrons between atoms with opposite electrical charges.

polymer

repeating chains of covalently linked monomers found in macromolecules.

products

the atoms, ions, or molecules that remain after a chemical reaction is complete.

protein

a complex macromolecule consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur and important to many cell functions.

proton

a positively charged subatomic particle, which is also the nucleus of a hydrogen atom.

reactants

the atoms, ions or molecules that exist at the beginning of a chemical reaction.

ribonucleic acid (rna)

nucleic acid consisting of nucleotides made up of phosphate, a ribose pentose sugar, in an arrangement of the bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil

saturated fat

a triglyceride in which all the terminal carbon atoms are covalently linked to hydrogen atoms (at room temperature solid)

steroids

lipids consisting of four fused carbon rings attached to various side chains and functional groups

unsaturated fat

a triglyceride with at least one double bond between adjacent carbon atoms, and thus at least one carbon atom bound to only a single hydrogen atom.

valence

the combining capacity of an atom

active transport

the movement of a substance against its electrochemical gradient via carrier proteins and requiring cell energy from ATP

amphitrichous

flagella at both poles of the cell

axial filament

in cell morphology, structure composed of rotating endoflagella that allows a spirochete to " corkscrew" through its medium

biofilm

a slimy community of microbes growing on a surface

capsule

glychcalyx composed of repeating units of organic chemicals firmly attached to the cells surface

chemotaxis

cell movement that occurs in response to chemical stimulus

cilia

short, hairlike, rhythmically motile projections of some eukaryotic cells

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