huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to industrialization.
preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers become full or parttime producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial Revolution.
rebellion of the British American Atlantic seaboard colonies; ended with the formation of the independent United States.
overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy through a revolution beginning in 1789; created a republic and eventually ended with Napoleon's French empire; the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
Bourbon ruler of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
adopted during the French Revolution; proclaimed the equality of French citizens; became a source document for later liberal movements.
introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized during the French Revolution against thousands of individuals, especially during the Reign of Terror.
leader of the radical phase of the French Revolution; presided over the Reign of Terror; arrested and executed by moderate revolutionaries.
army officer who rose in rank during the wars of the French Revolution; ended the democratic phase of the revolution; became emperor; deposed and exiled in 1815.
Congress of Vienna
met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore the European balance of power.
political ideology that flourished in 19th-century western Europe; stressed limited state interference in private life, representation of the people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
followers of a 19th-century western European political emphasis: advocated broader voting rights than liberals; urged reforms favoring the lower classes.
political ideology in 19th-century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of the means of production and an end to the capitalistic exploitation of the working class.
European 19th-century viewpoint; often allied with other "isms"; urged the importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on ethnic origins.
rebellion of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; a key step in the disintegration of the Turkish Balkan empire.
French Revolution of 1830
second revolution against the Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement which created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.
Belgian Revolution of 1830
produced Belgian independence from the Dutch; established a constitutional monarchy.
Reform Bill of 1832
British legislation that extended the vote to most male members of the middle class.
devised a steam engine in the 1770s that could be used for production in many industries; a key step in the Industrial Revolution.
intensification of all of the processes of production at a single site during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and increased discipline.
workers in Britain who responded to the replacement of their labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy machines; named after the fictional worker Ned Ludd.
unsuccessful attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote during the 1840s.
French Revolution of 1848
overthrew the French monarchy established in 1830; briefly established the 2nd French Republic.
Revolutions of 1848
the nationalist and liberal movements within the Habsburg Empire (Italy, Germany, Austria, Hungary); after temporary success they were suppressed.
discoverer of germs and of the purifying process named after him.
British politician; granted the vote to working-class males in 1867; an example of conservative politicians keeping stability through reform.
Camillo di Cavour
architect of Italian unification in 1858; created a constitutional Italian monarchy under the King of Piedmont.
Otto von Bismarck
conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under the Prussian king in 1871; utilized liberal reforms to maintain stability.
American Civil War (1861-1865)
fought to prevent secession of the southern states; the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution; resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States.
political system in Italy that allied conservative and liberals in support of the status quo.
issues relating to workers and women, in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached the inevitability of social revolution and the creation of a proletarian dictatorship.
socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions.
sought legal and economic gains for women, among them equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on the right to vote; won initial support from middle-class women.
mass leisure culture
an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation trips and team sports.
biologist who developed the theory of evolution of species; argued that all living forms evolved through the successful ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
formulated mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; about 1900 issued the theory of relativity.
Viennese physician who developed theories of the workings of the human unconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses.
19th western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
historical argument that the development of the United States was largely individualistic and that contact with Europe was incidental to American formation.
alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.
agreement between Britain, Russia, and France in 1907; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.
movements to create independent states and reunite ethnic groups in the Balkans; provoked crises within the European alliance system that ended with the outbreak of World War I.