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Study for final exam

Compounds are made up of:

two or more different types of atoms.

Atoms are pure substances made up of:

only one type of atom.

Physiology is defined as:

the study of the function of a living organism and its parts.

Ionic bonds are formed by:

atoms of opposite charge.

A neuron with a resting potential has a __________ charge.

positive

What happens when a neuron reaches its threshold?

It transmits an impulse.

When a muscle fiber contracts, it contracts at its full capacity. This is called:

the all-or-none response.

Sebum is:

the secretion from the hair follicles that helps lubricate the hair and skin.

Where are papillae found?

on the tongue.

Villus are found in:

the intestinal tract.

Astrocytes are neuroglia that are important for:

the formation of the blood brain barrier.

Schwann cells form the myelin sheaths in the:

PNS.

Oligodendrocytes are:

cells that produce myelin for neurons in the central nervous system.

Microglia are neuroglia that:

help protect the CNS from microbes.

Anatomy is the:

study of the parts of an organism and how they relate to each other.

Ionic bonds usually dissolve easily in:

water.

Molecules with ionic bonds produce:

ions when dissolved in water and form an electrolyte.

When a section of the neuron is stimulated by an action potential:

the exterior of the cell becomes negative.

The exterior of a neuron with resting potential:

has a slightly positive charge.

The epiphyses are:

the broader ends of long bones containing red marrow.

Water is the most abundant:

compound in the body.

Water is found both in:

and around the cells of the body.

Water is the solvent in which:

most other compounds are dissolved.

The human body is what percentage water

60%-70%

Freely movable joints are also called:

diarthrotic (SAD) or synovial.

A slightly movable joint is also called:

amphiarthotic. (SAD)

What is the primary characteristic of synarthrotic joints?

The are immovable. (SAD)

The minimum number of neurons for a reflex arc is:

two neurons.

A three neuron reflex arc has one sensory neuron, one motor neuron, and one:

interneuron.

The shoulder joint (glenohumeral) is an example of what kind of joint?

Ball-and-socket

Elbow joint (humeroulnar) is which type of joint?

Hinge

The C1 &C2 (atlantoaxial) joint is of which type?

Pivot

The radius and ulna form which type of joint?

Pivot

Circumduction:

An action of an appendage that makes a cone-shaped movement and draws a circle at the distal end.

Carpals and tarsals are gliding joints that:

move slightly in all three axes of movement.

The knee joint permits which types of functional movements?

Flexion and extension.

An acid: has a pH:

of less than 7.

A base has a pH:

greater than 7.

Water has a pH of

7

Midsagittal plane

The plane that divides the body into left and right halves?

Sagittal plane

The plane that left and right halves?

Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into

anterior/front, or posterior/back.

Transverse plane or horizontal plane divides the body:

into superior and inferior portions.

What are the functions of bone?

Support, protection, mineral storage, and blood formation (hematopoiesis)

Periosteum

A strong fibrous membrane covering a long bone, all except the joint surfaces.

Endosteum

The membrane inside the medullary cavity of lone bones

Spongy bone is characterized by:

open spaces partially filled by an assemblage of needle-like structures (trabeculae)

gastrointestinal tract.

The tube that forms the primary organs of the digestive system

alveoli are found in the: (system)

respiratory system.

Lymph nodes are found in the (system):

lymphatic system.

Glucose

a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that comes from carbohydrates. (the body's preferred energy source).

One of the methods of determining the extent (surface area effected) of a burn injury is:

the "rule of nines."

One of the methods of determining the degree (depth) of a burn injury is:

first degree, second degree, and third degree.

The two major body cavities are called the:

ventral and dorsal cavities.

Abdominal and pelvic cavities are sometimes referred to as:

abdominopelvic cavity.

The thoracic cavity is part of the:

ventral cavity.

The Golgi tendon receptors are classified as:

proprioceptors.

Peritonitis is:

inflammation of the serous membrane in the abdominal cavity.

The serous membranes in the thoracic cavity are called:

pleurae (visceral pleura and parietal pleura).

The medulla oblongata contains the "vital centers" for:

the cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor functions.

The hip joint (iliofemoral) is which type of joint?

Ball-and-socket

The elbow, knee, and ankle are examples which type of joint?

Hinge

The radius and ulna produce which actions?

Supination and pronation

A base has a pH:

greater than 7.

Water has a pH:

of 7.

Skin is composed of which layers of tissues?

epidermis and dermis. (hypodermis is technically not part of the skin)

Subcutaneous is also called:

hypodermis.

epidermis,

contains a top layer called corneum that sheds constantly

The free nerve endings in the skin respond to:

. pain

Pacianian

vibration.

The main shaft-like portion of a long bone is called what?

Diaphysis

Epiphysis

wider ends of bones that have the growth plate and soft spongy bone

Articular cartilage

covers the ends of articulate bones

A synapse is:.

a gap between neurons.

Axon the conducting portion of a neuron carries

Away from cell body

Dendrite brings a stimulus

into the cell body

What are the two divisions of the human skeleton?

Axial and appendicular

Two main types of bone

Compact and spongy bone

The point of contact between the nerve and the muscle fibers it stimulates is

called: neuromuscular junction.

motor unit. A single motor neuron with all

the muscle cells it innervates is called:

motor neuron.

one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it inervates

neurotransmitter.

Chemical messenger that jumps a synaptic gap

The minimal level of stimulation required to cause a fiber to contract is called:

a threshold stimulus.

When a muscle fiber is stimulated it contracts completely. This is called:

the all-or-none law.

Twitch reaction

Is a single event spasm of a muscle

Tonic contracture:

is sustained partial contraction of a muscle

What are the three types of muscle fibers?

Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

The muscle attachment to the more stationary bone is called

the: origin.

The muscle that produces the desired action is

prime mover.

The sense of taste is classified as

a: chemoreceptor.

The body's sense of position and movement is reported by

stimulation of proprioceptors.

The thin myofilaments inside the sarcomeres of skeletal muscle cells are called:

actin

The thick myofilaments inside the sarcomeres of skeletal muscle cells are called:

myosin.

Sarcomere is the

basic contractile unit of skeletal muscles called?

The sympathetic nervous system is:

called the thoracolumbar system. known as the "fight or flight" system.

The parasympathetic nervous system is called:

cranuiosacral outlflow system. known as the "rest and digest" system.

dendrite.

The part of the neuron that carries impulses to the neuron cell body is the:

neurolemma.

= cell membrane of nerve fiber

nodes of Ranvier

= gaps in myelin that allows "spark" of action portential (impulse) to jump. Making it faster

afferent (sensory) neurons.

The types of neurons that carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord are called:

efferent (motor) neurons.

The types of neurons that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord are called:
myelinated neurons. = fast

unmyelinated neurons

. = slow

What are the three parts of the brain stem:

midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.

The type of neurons that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord

are called: efferent neurons.

The type of neurons that carry impulses towards

the brain and spinal cord
are called: afferent neurons.

axon.

The part of the neuron that carries impulses away from the soma is the:

dendrite.

The part of the neuron that carries impulses towards the soma is the:

Osteocytes are

mature bone cells

Osteoclasts are

cells that break down bone

Osteons

- the smallest structural and functional unit of bone

Osteoblasts

What are bone-forming cells are called?

Three bones of the middle ear

malleus, stapes, incus.

Receptors sensitive to light

photoreceptors.

neurotransmitter.

chemical messenger that jumps the synaptic cleft

motor neuron.

efferent

sensory neuron

afferent

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