The amount of product actually produced when a chemical reaction is carried out in an experiment.
A solution in which the solvent is water.
A model of acids and bases; states that an acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and ionizes to produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution and a base is a substance that contains hydroxide group and dissociates to produce a hydroxide ion in aqueous solution.
Pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere. At sea level it has a mean value of one atmosphere but reduces with increasing altitude.
The smallest particle of an element that retains all properties of that element; is electrically neutral, spherically shaped and composed of electrons, protons and neutrons.
Italian physicist who determined the volumes of one mole of a gas.
The number, (6.022 × 1023) which is the number of representative particles in a mole.
States that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.
An instrument that is used to measure atmospheric pressure.
The temperature at which a liquid's vapor pressure is equal to the external or atmospheric pressure.
Boiling point elevation
The temperature difference between a solution's boiling point and a pure solvent's boiling point.
States that volume of a given amount of gas held at constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure. (P1V1 = P2V2)
A model of acids and bases which an acid is hydrogen ion donor and base is a hydrogen ion acceptor.
A change in which one or more new substances are formed.
States that the volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature at constant pressure. (V1/T1=V2/T2)
A process involving one or more substances changing into new substances also called as chemical reaction.
A statement using chemical formulas to describe the identities and relative amounts of reactants and products involved in the chemical reaction.
The process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances; occurrence can be indicated by changes in temperature, color, odor and physical state.
Variables (letters), subscripts, coefficients and raised powers.
In a chemical equation, the number written in front of a reactant or product; tells the smallest number of particles of the substance involved in the reaction.
A physical property of a solution that depends on the number but not the identity of the dissolved solute particles. The properties include vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, osmotic pressure and freezing point depression.
Heterogeneous mixture containing particles larger than solution particles but smaller than suspension particles that are categorized according to phases of their dispersed particles and dispersing mediums.
Combined Gas Law
A single law combining Boyle's, Charles's and Gay Loussac's laws that state the relationship among pressure volume and temperature of a fixed amount of gas. (P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2)
A chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light.
Contains a large amount of solute.
A quantitative measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution.
The energy-releasing process by which a gas or vapor becomes a liquid.
The species produced when a base accepts a hydrogen ion from an acid.
The species produced when an acid donates a hydrogen ion to a base.
A ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in different units; is always equal to 1 and changes the units of a quantity without changing its value.
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases in the mixture.
A chemical reaction that occurs when a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds.
A ration that compares the mass of an object to its volume. (D=Mass/Volume)
The energy-releasing process by which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a solid without first becoming a liquid.
The movement of one material through another from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
The number of the acid or base molecules dissolved in a volume of solution. It contains small amount of solute.
Acids that contain two ionizable hydrogen atoms per molecule.
Double Replacement Reaction
A chemical reaction that involves the exchange of positive ions between two compounds and produces a precipitate, gas or water.
is the capability of acting or producing effectively with a minimum of waste, expense, or unnecessary effort. Efficiency can be expressed as a result as percentage of what ideally could be expected, hence with 100% as ideal case. This does not always apply, not even in all cases where efficiency can be assigned a numerical value.
Describes a collision in which kinetic energy maybe transferred between the colliding particles but the total kinetic energy of the two particles remains the same.
The process in which vaporization occurs only at the surface of a liquid.
Substance that flows freely; gases and liquids.
The simplest ratio of ions represented in an ionic compound.
The temperature at which a liquid is converted to a crystalline solid.
Freezing Point depression
The difference in temperature between a solution's freezing point and freezing point of its pure solvent.
States that pressure of a given mass of gas varies directly with the Kelvin temperature when the volume remains constant. (P1/T1=P2/T2)
Graham's Law of Effusion
States that the rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass.
Hydrogen ions; acidic solutions contain more [H+] than [OH-].
Heat of solution
The overall energy change that occurs during the solution formation process.
All compositions evolve heat upon ignition, and this release of energy can be used to produce color, motion, smoke and noise.
States that at a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid.
A compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to its atoms.
A strong dipole-dipole attraction between molecules that contain a hydrogen atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with at least one lone electron pair.
Ideal Gas Constant
(R) An experimentally determined constant whose value in the ideal gas law equation depends on the units that are used for pressure.
Ideal Gas Law
Describes the physical behavior of an ideal gas in terms of the temperature, volume, and pressure and number of moles of a gas that is present. (PV=nRT)
Intermolecular Attraction Forces
Includes Dispersion Forces which are weak forces that result from temporary shifts in the density of electrons in electron clouds, Dipole-Dipole Forces which are attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules and the Hydrogen Bond is a dipole-dipole attraction that occurs between molecules containing hydrogen atom bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with at least one lone electron pair. (IMAF's)
If a photon hits an atom with enough energy; the atom may absorb it and kick out or lose, an electron. This is called an ionization reaction, and is at the heart of the photoelectric effect.
Atoms, or bonded group of atoms, with a positive or negative charge.
Is the energy in motion.
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Explains the properties of gases in terms of energy, size, and motion of their particles.
Any acid that can accept a share of electron pairs.
Any base that can share an electron pair.
Lewis Dot Formula (Electron Dot Formula)-
Representation of a molecule, ion or formula unit by showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons
Measure of the amount of matter.
it expresses the relationship of elements in a compound.
The process when a solid turns to a liquid. (ice -->H20)
For a crystalline solid, the temperature at which forces holding a crystal lattice together are broken and it becomes a liquid.
The ratio of the number of moles of solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent. molality (M = moles solute/kg of solution)
The mass in grams (g) of one mole (m) of any pure substance.
The number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution.To determine Molarity of a solution: (Molarity X Molecular Weight X Volume = Grams) (Moles/liter X Grams/mole X Liters = Grams needed) To determine Molarity:Molarity = Grams/(Molecular Weight X Volume)Moles/liter = Grams/[(grams/mole) X Liters]
The sum of the atomic weight's of all the atoms constituting a molecule; the mass of a molecule relative to the mass of a standard atom, now 12C (taken as 12.000). Relative molecular mass (Mr) is the mass relative to the Dalton and has no units.
Forms when two or more atoms covalently bond and is lower in potential energy that its constituent atoms.
the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance. 1 mole (mol)=Avogadro's number (6.0221415 × 1023 ).
The ratio of the number of moles of solute in a solution to the total number of moles of solute and solvent.
In a balanced equation, the ration between the numbers of moles of any two substances.
An acid that can only donate one hydrogen ion.
Contains equal concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions.
Number of Moles
The mass in grams of one mole of a compound is equal to the molecular weight of the compound in atomic mass units. One mole of a compound contains 6.022x1023 molecules of the compound. The mass of 1 mole of a compound is called its molar weight or molar mass. The units for molar weight or molar mass are grams per mole. Here is the formula for determining the number of moles of a sample:
Hydroxide ions; basic solutions contain more [OH-] than [H+]
The diffusion of solvent particles across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of higher solvent concentration to an area of lower solvent concentration.
The additional pressure needed to reverse osmosis.
The percent by mass of each element in a compound.
The ratio of actual yield to theoretical yield expressed as a percent.
A Chart that organizes all known elements into a grid of horizontal rows (periods) and vertical column (groups or families) arranged by increasing atomic number.
The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
Phase Changes that require energy includes melting, sublimation and vaporization; phase changes that release energy include condensation, deposition and freezing.
A graph of pressure versus temperature that shows which phase is a substance exists under different conditions of a temperature and pressure.
The negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution.
A type of change that alters the physical properties of a substance but does no change its composition.
When applied to solvents, this rather term covers their overall Solvation capability (Solvation power) for solutes (i.e. in chemical equilibrium: reactants and products; in reaction rates: reactants and activated complex; in light absorptions: ions or molecules in the ground and excited state), which in turn depends on the action of all possible, nonspecific and specific, intermolecular interactions between solute ions or molecules and solvent molecules, excluding such interactions leading to definite chemical alterations of the ions or molecules of the solute. Occasionally, the term solvent polarity is restricted to nonspecific solute/solvent interactions only.
Any acid that can be used for any acid that has more than one ionizable hydrogen atom.
A solid produced during chemical reaction in a solution.
Force applied per unit area.
A substance formed during a chemical reaction.
SPECIFIC RATE CONSTANT is the numerical value that relates reaction rate and concentration of reactants at given temperature.
The starting substance in a chemical reaction-
Single Replacement Reaction
A chemical reaction that occurs when an atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound.
The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure.
A substance dissolved in a solution.
A uniform mixture that may contain solids, liquids, or gases; also called as homogenous mixture.
The process of surrounding solute particles of with solvent particles to form a solution, occurs only where and when the solute and solvent particles come in contact with each other.
Substance that dissolves a solute to form a solution.
Speeds of Diffusion
The relative speeds of diffusion of gasses are inversely proportional to the square roots of their relative densities.
The study of quantitative relationships between the amounts of reactants used and products formed by chemical reaction; is based on the law of conservation of mass.
STP (Standard Temperature & Pressure)
Avogadro's principle which states that equal volumes of gases at the sane temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.
Substances that conduct or exert electricity well on dilute solutions.
The energy-requiring process by which a solid changes directly to gas without first becoming a liquid.
The letter or symbol written below and to the side of another letter or symbol.
The energy required to increase surface area of a liquid by a given amount; results from uneven distribution of attractive forces.
A type of heterogeneous mixtures whose particles settle out over time and can be separated from the mixture by filtration.
A chemical reaction in which two or more substances react to yield a single product.
A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter.
In a chemical reaction, the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant.
The scattering of light by colloidal particles.
The pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid.
Vapor Pressure Lowering
The lowering of pressure of a solvent by the addition of a nonvolatile solute to the solvent.
The energy requiring process by which a liquid changes to a gas or vapor.
A measure if the resistance of a liquid to flow which is affected by the size and shape of particles and generally increases as the temperature decreases and as intermolecular forces increase.
Know the volume in Avogadro's Principle, Boyle's and Charles's Law and Stoichometry and ideal gas law.
In chemical reactions involving a solid material, the surface area to volume ratio is an important factor for the reactivity; that is, the rate at which the chemical reaction will proceed. Materials with great surface area to volume ratio (e.g., very small diameter, or very porous or otherwise not compact) react at much faster rates than monolithic materials, because more surface is available to react. Examples include grain dust; while grain isn't typically flammable, grain dust is explosive. Finely ground salt dissolves much more quickly than coarse salt. High surface area to volume ratio provides a strong "driving force" to speed up thermodynamic processes that minimize free energy.