Bering Land Bridge
A land bridge between Siberia and Alaska that was exposed in the most recent ice age, then closed 25,000 years after opening. The significance of the Bering Land Bridge is that it was the reason for migration to the Americas. People traveled over the land bridge because they were following a herd of "game".
an ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200. The Cahokia people could have a large population because they utilized te stable crop of maize.
An urban center established by Anasazi located in southern New Mexico. There, they built a walled city with dozens of three-story adobe houses with timbered roofs. The Anasazi pueblo had six-hundred interconnecting rooms.
Mali was a flourishing empire in the fourteenth century under the Emperor Mansu Masu. The empire of Mali had a surplus of gold and slaves. Mali had a status as one of the medieval world's largest supplier of gold.
Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean and then made it to India
Bartolomé Las Casas
Bartolomè Las Casas was a Spanish missionary that was appalled by the encomienda system and called it "a moral pestilence invented by Satan". Bartolomè Las Casas was a reform-minded friar, that wrote the Destruction of the Indies in 1542. Bartolomè Las Casas was horrified by results of the Old World diseases on the Native Americans
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal. Portugal received compensational territory in Africa and Asia, as well as land in South America that is now, modern day Brazil.
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them how to be christian. This was considered slavery by Bartolomè Las Casas.
A reconquista means, the retaking of one' land. A siege on the city of Granada in Spain against the Arab's was a reconquista for the Spanish. This specific "reconquista" left a mark on Spanish culture that represented their obsession with status and honor, this bred religious zealotry and intolerance.
Tenochtitlàn was the capital of the Aztec Empire, located in modern day Mexico. Hernàn Cortes wanted to take control of Tenochtitlàn so he gathered 20,000 Native American warriors to venture with him against Monteczuma the Aztec Emperor.
When the Spanish decided to fortify their borderlands they erected a fortress in St. Augustine, Florida. This fort was built to block the French ambitions and it was made to protect Caribbean sea-lanes.
The "Black Legend"
The black legend is a concept that states that the conquerors of the New World merely tortured and butchered the Indians, the Black Legend refers to the conquerors as if they were "killing for Christ". It states that the conquerors stole the Natives gold, and infected them with smallpox. This legend was a hyperbola of the actual truth, but still grasped the true main concepts.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Sir Walter Raleigh was the youngest son of a landlord. He was credited for introducing tobacco and the potato into England. He is also credited for founding the Roanoke colony on Roanoke Island. After marrying one of Queen Elizabeth's maids of honor, he fell out of favor and was ultimately beheaded for treason.
The first English settlement in North America. This Settlement would eventually grow into many settlements and be the center of the mighty nation that is ours, America.
Captain John Smith
Captain John smith is known for have saving the Jamestown colony. He turned gold hungry men into functioning citizens of a functioning colony. Later he was kidnapped by the chief Powhatan and almost executed, but was saved by the chief's daughter, Pocahontas.
"Chief-of-the-Chiefs" who lead 30 Algonquian tribes known as the Powhatans, who helped the English settlement at Jamestown, father to Pocahontas. He performed a mock execution of the Jamestown leader Captain John Smith to show how powerful he was.
John Rolfe had married Pocahontas to keep a short period of peace between the colonists and the natives. While married he became the father of the tobacco industry for the Virginia colony, mastering the best ways to plant and uphold tobacco.
Lord Baltimore was the founder of the Maryland colony in 1634. "He embarked upon the venture partly to reap financial profits and partly to create a refuge for his fellow Catholics."(Pg. 33; Maryland: Catholic Heaven)
African Diaspora took place 1500-1800 A.D. It literally means the "scattering of blacks all over the New World."
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
A powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the U.S. made up of five nations: the Mohawk, Seneca, CAyuga, Onondaga, and Oneiga.
John Calvin of Geneva was the author and publisher of Institute of the Christian Religion. John Calvin founded Calvinism, which is a religion that emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule. The significance of the Mayflower Compact is that it was the precedent to the Constitution, and was truly the origin for all the other constitution like documents in America.
A Pilgrim, the first governor of the Massachusetts bay colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Anne Hutchinson was the first woman or any person for that sort to speak up against the Puritan orthodoxy. She was intelligent, strong-willed, and she was very talkative person. She publicly steppe out and questioned the way of the Puritans and for this they banished her. Anne Hutchinson is significant because she was the first to oppose the Puritan way which led to many more such as Roger Williams.
Reverend Thomas Hooker
found colony of Hartford when he led a large group of Boston Puritans, who were unhappy with Massachusetts authorities, into the Connecticut River Valley.
In 1639 the Connecticut River colony settlers had an open meeting and they established a constitution called the Fundamental Orders. It made a Democratic government. It was the first constitution in the colonies and was a beginning for the other states' charters and constitutions.
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
a settlement established by the Dutch near the mouth of Hudson River and the southern end of Manhattan Island
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
a not sturdy colony that lacked the ability to reproduce by itself of stabilize itself, governmentally, socially, and population wise, until the end of the seventeenth century. The Chesapeake colony is an important colony because inside the Chesapeake colony, Bacon's rebellion took place, which was the greatest slave revolt in American history.
An indentured servant was a white man who would be penniless and landless in Old England, and would sell their freedom to a Landowner for the chance to start a new life in America. Indentured servants came before black slaves and died out due to rising wages in England. Te significance of the indentures servants is that, the indentured servants were the heart of Bacon's rebellion and followed their leader Nathaniel Bacon - Nathaniel Bacon led Bacon's rebellion and soon died shortly after from disease. All he known for is the Bacon rebellion, because of the Bacon Rebellion it caused a counterattack from the governor of Virginia that killed more than 20 rebels
In South Carolina, 1739, a revolt broke out along the Stono River. About 50 blacks exploded in revolt. This proved that the blacks were not a force to be messed with, but in the end their inquisitions failed because they proved to better handled than the white indentured servants.
In South Carolina, 1739, a revolt broke out along the Stono River. About 50 blacks exploded in revolt. This proved that the blacks were not a force to be messed with, but in the end their inquisitions failed because they proved to better handled than the white indentured servants. Harvard is also important because it showed that one, Northerners needed to be educated because they could not just be farmers like southerners, and two, that kids in the new world did not have to go to Europe to be educated.
a sermon or prophecy recounting wrongdoing, warning of doom, and calling for repentance.
Salem Witch Hunt
period of hysteria in 1692, when a group of teenaged girls accused neighbors of bewitching them; in ten months, nineteen people were executed and hundreds imprisoned. The hysteria subsided when the girls accused the more prominent individuals in the colony, including the governor's wife
The Nutmeg State
nickname for Connecticut because of some Yankee traders carving wooden nutmegs. This showed that in the north there was a true fight for jobs and people had to get creative to get a paying job, or be hard working and smart.