All living things are made of cells, cells are the smallest units of life, and cells come only from other cells
"Cells come from other cells"
Pasteur's experiment disproved spontaneous generation because the microorganisms came from the air into the broth. The broth didn't produce them by itself.
Amoebae (made of one cell), Muscle & Fungi (more than one nucleus and very long) and Viruses (has DNA & RNA, is it living?)
Functions of Life
nutrition, homeostasis, reproduce, excretion, respond to stimulus, growth, movement
scale bar measurement/actual # on scale bar
Larger SA to Vol ratio
allows for cell differentiation, specialized functions and more complex multicellular life
maximize surface area for reactions
these fold up to maximize SA:Vol
Embryonic Stem Cells
This is when the sperm and the egg begin the normal part of development, however the process is isolated at the beginning stages so the stem cells can be manipulated to form specific types of cells.
Stem cells becoming specific types of cells
Somatic Stem Cells
Stem cells that originate in bone marrow; can only change into red or white blood cells (and the subcategories).
IPS (Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells)
This occurs when you take a cell from the skin, etc. and reprogram the DNA to change the cell during division; genetic engineering
This is when you take an egg cell, suck out all the DNA to create an empty vessel, replace the DNA with a specific person's DNA and then stimulate the cell to divide to make stem cells with the new DNA.
Functions of the Plasma Membrane
holds cell together, controls what goes in and out of the cell, protection, allows cell to recognize and to be recognized, binds to other cells and molecules, site for biochemical reactions
Structure of Plasma Membrane
phosphate head(polar) and lipid tail(non-polar); phospholipid bilayer
allows large or charged substances to travel into and out of the cell
acts as pumps to let substances into/out of the cell during active transport (type of channel)
receptors to recognize molecules, sometimes enzymes, adhere to other cells, maintain cell shape, do not go through cell
carbohydrate chains attached to peripheral proteins, recognize other cells and are receptors for substances (hormones)
helps to regulate the fluidity of the membrane, provides stability by binding to the lipid tails (only in animal cells)
No Energy Required
simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis
active transport, exocytosis, endocytosis
passive movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration through the plasma membrane (not water concentration)
particles move from high to low concentration through a channel protein
the movement of water from high to low concentration or from low solute to high solute
when water goes into a cell
when water goes into and out of a cell
when water goes out of a cell
molecules move from low to high concentration, goes through a protein and against the concentration gradient
the exiting of macromolecules through the cell membrane
the entering of macromolecules through the cell membrane