Rocky wasteland that has been carved
by erosion into intricate and
Erosion is the process by which water, wind, and ice slowly change the shape, size, and look
of every feature on Earth by wearing it away.
A small area of sea or lake partly enclosed by dry land. Coves and inlets are very small bays. Some deep, sheltered bays are called harbors.
Butte and Mesa
An isolated, rocky hill or mountain with a small flat top. A mesa is similar to a butte except it has a large flat top.
A deep, narrow valley with steep, rocky sides. Flowing along the bottom or floor of most canyons is the river that created it by carving through the surrounding rock. Small canyons are called chasms, gorges, or ravines.
A pointed piece of land that projects from a coastline. Small capes are often called points of spits.
One of the seven great masses of land on Earth. The continents are:
North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica.
Long mountain ridge lines that determine the directions a continent\\\'s rivers will flow. In North and South America, rivers west of the Great Divide flow into the Pacific Ocean and rivers to the east flow into the Atlantic Ocean.
A shallow underwater plain that is the real outer edge of a continent. The continental shelf ends at the continental slope, a cliff that plunges to the deep ocean floor.
A fan-shaped deposit of mud and sand, often green with vegetation, found at the mouths of many rivers.
A very dry and desolate land that receives little or no rainfall. Most deserts are covered with rocks and stones. Only one fifth of all desert
surfaces are covered with sand.
An oasis is an isolated green spot in a desert where water flows up from an underground spring.
A mound or ridge of loose sand shaped by blowing winds. Dunes are found in deserts and along seashores.
A long, narrow inlet of the sea between tall, rocky cliffs.
A region thickly covered with trees and abundant underbrush. Forests are also called woodlands or woods.
A small, narrow, rocky ravine. Sometimes a violent mountain stream called a torrent races through a gulch.
A narrow strip of land that does two things: 1.) it connects two much larger areas of land, and
2.) it narrowly separates two large bodies of water.
A hot humid, tropical rain forest. Most jungles are located near the equator.
A low, spongy wetland covered with thick, healthy growths of tall grasses and reeds.
(1) The entire body of salt water that covers nearly three-quarters of the earth\\\'s surface. (2) Any one of the separate oceans:
Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Southern Ocean
A massive mountain range lying at the bottom of an ocean or sea. An ocean trench is a deep, narrow canyon in the ocean floor. There are More mountains and more canyons under the
water than there are on dry land.
Promontory or Headland:
A high, prominent point on a rocky coastline. Promontories are ideal sites for lighthouses.
A marsh with trees. Swamps usually contain more water and deeper water than marshes. Deep, dangerous pools of quicksand are sometimes found near swamps and marshes.
A broad belt of climate and geography that encircles the earth. There are five zones on the earth: Tropical or torrid zone, Temperate zones, Polar zones, Arctic zones, Antarctic zones.
A large inland body of water. Lakes are bigger than ponds, and ponds are bigger than pools.
A body of flowing water. A brook is a small stream, a creek is medium-sized, and a river is the largest of streams.
The high sides along the edges of streams.
A hollow underground chamber, usually one with an opening in the side of a hill or mountain.
A larger cave or a series of connected caves.
A hollow chamber eaten into a coastal cliff by the pounding power of crashing waves. Sea arches and sea stacks are also craved from these rocky cliffs.
A long, large stream. Major rivers have many tributary streams and rivers flowing into them.
A stretch of stream or river where the fast moving current crashes against the rocks and boulders in its path.
A shallow place in a stream where people and animals can safely wade from one bank to the other.
A bend in the winding, looping course of many lowland rivers. Sometimes, the river channel will break through the narrow neck of a loop to create curved bits of water called oxbow lakes.
A vast open plain covered with natural or planted grasses. Tropical grasslands are called savannas. In other parts of the world grasslands have various names: pampas, prairies, plains, veldts, or steppes.
A broad region of flat or gently rolling, treeless land.
A large highland plain that rises sharply above the surrounding land. Plateaus are also called tablelands.
A sheer, steep face of rock or earth. A high, overhanging edge of a cliff is called a precipice.
Similar to a cliff but is less steep and has a broad, softly rounded face.
A bold line of high steep cliffs. A long palisade that joins two level areas of land is an escarpment.
A long, broad ocean inlet that is roughly parallel to the coast.
A large inlet of ocean or sea that is partially surrounded by land. Gulfs are much bigger and deeper than bays.
A rugged, upthrust mass of rock that looms high above the surrounding land. Mountains are sometimes called mounts.
Have several names: peaks, pinnacles, crests, or summits.
An opening or gap in a mountain range that serves as a path or road across the mountains.
A mountainous or hilly region that stands above the surrounding landscape.
A long, connected chain of mountains and hills.
An elevated, rounded point of land that is lower and smaller than a mountain. A knob is a small hill; a knoll is even smaller.
A gently sloping depression between hills or mountains. A stream flows along the floor of many valleys. Small valleys with creeks flowing through them are called hollows.
A stream that flows over the edge of a cliff. There are two types of water falls:
Cataract - a large, dramatic waterfall that lunges down from a high, overhanging precipice. Cascade - a small, splashing waterfall that tumbles down a mountainside in a series of steps.
An opening or vent in the earth\\\'s crust through which ashes, hot gases, and lava erupt. Lava is a fiery liquid formed of hot melted rock. As lava cools, it often forms cone-shaped mountains.
A large body of salt water that is smaller than an ocean. Sea and ocean are often used interchangeably to refer to great bodies of salt water.
The sandy or rocky land at the edge of an ocean, sea, or lake. Beaches are part of the coastline or seashore.
An underwater ridge of sand built up by tides and currents. Sandbanks and sandbars create areas of shallow water called shoals.
A narrow waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Straits are also called channels, passages, and narrows.
A huge, treeless plain bordering the Arctic Ocean. Alpine tundras are found on mountain slopes at altitudes where trees cannot grow.
A naturally hot, or geothermal, spring that shoots scalding water and steam high into the air. In the Icelandic language the word geyser means \\\"roaring gusher.\\\"
The vast evergreen forest, primarily firs and spruces, located directly south of the arctic tundra.
One of the vast, grassy plains of southeast Europe and Asia, having few trees.
A piece of land that is smaller than a continent and completely surrounded by water. Very small islands are called isles and islets.
An underwater mountain. A tall seamount whose sharp, jagged peak is just below the surface of the ocean is a pinnacle. With a flat top it is called a guyot.
A narrow chain of rock, sand, or coral lurking just below or just above the water.