Biology 102 Test 1

154 terms by kouken 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Hierarchy of Organization

1. Organism
2. Population
3. Community
4. Ecosystems
5. Biosphere

Group of species; All organisms of the same species in one area

Population

There are a range of ages in the population;There are lists of characteristics that apply to populations but do not apply to an ________.

individual

Different populations

Community

Descent with modification occurring over generatons

evolution

An _______ doesn't evolve, but ______ do.

Individual; populations

Theory of Evolution

is not a theory whether evolution occurred it addresses how and why evolution occurs.

The Theory of Evolution is _______ _______.

Natural Selection

Explain Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics

What one does to change oneself in their lifetime can be passed on to their descendants.

Wrote a popular book on Evolution and was associated with Natural Selection

Darwin

Went around the world to shoot and capture animals and birds to ship to Europe to study. Joined Darwin to publish his book.

Wallace

In every population there is ______ variation.

genetic

The capacity for ______ exceeds the capacity of the environment.

reproduction

done deliberately by humans and selection which would survive and reproduce. Humans choose which organisms will survive and reproduce. Ex. Animal and plant breeding.

Artificial Selection

The environment determines what survives and reproduces.

Natural Selection

The result of Natural Selection is _____.

Adaptation

Any remnant of past life of distant or very distant past. Can be bones, impressions, teeth, insects, leaf impressions, petrified wood, footprints.

Fossil

formed ultimately from living things in the past. Ex. Oil, coal

fossil fuels

the process by which a dead body or part becomes a fossil.

fossilization

_____body parts are more likely to fossilize than ______ parts/things. Although ____ parts can fossilize.

Hard; softer; soft

For an organism to become a fossil is very _____.

unusual

Fossils are less likely found:

in mountain sides and rain forests

To determine the age of a fossil you can look at the level in which its buried in ______ ___.

sedimentary rock

fine particles on the bottom of the floor under water.

sediment

Measures radioactive decay to indicate how old a fossil is.

radioisotopes

A method of dating fossils that is only valid for 50-60 thousand years

Carbon Dating

Similarities in organisms resulting from common ancestry showing how organisms evolve.

homology

Homology can be more evident in ______ ______.

embryonic development

Homology can also be found at the ________ level by looking at ________ ____ _____ sequence. (DNA)

molecular; amino acid protein

Convergent evolution; similarities not because of common ancestry but because very different organisms of different species look alike because of their environment.

Homoplasy

Homoplasy shows evolution through _____ _____ by living a similar way in a similar environment.

natural selection

When organisms become alike in everything even though they are not related.

Convergent evolution

Simply looking at how organisms are distributed on a global scale

biogeography

Explain continental drift.

Continents are actually moving. Continents have a cycle of coming together and then separating. This explains why marsupials are located in the continents they inhabit. They originated in North America and then spread to South America and Australia before the continents split. The only marsupial left in North America is the opossum.

A sequence of DNA that controls a certain trait.

gene

variant forms of a gene

allele

_______ have allele frequency.

populations

Evolution occurs in a population when _____ _____ change from one generation to the next.

Allele frequencies

a change in the DNA sequence and can create new alleles. This causes a change in allele frequency

mutation

______ are random and cannot be predicated. Only the rate can be predicted.

Mutations

Mutations can be _____, ____ or ______.

beneficial, lethal, or have no effect on survival.

Natural Selection chooses which ____ is successful based on the environment.

Allele

There is limited movement in sexual reproduction in __________ but genes will move from one population to another and this causes changes in _____ ________.

populations; allele frequencies

is a force in evolution when organisms migrate from one population to another. This can also change allele frequencies.

gene flow

Chance events that cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next in small populations.

Genetic Drift

Genetic Drift tends to reduce _____ _______.

genetic variation

The ____ the population the less likely for genetic drift for elimination of an individual.

larger

When populations reduce largely; drastically affect the population and decreases the genetic variability.

genetic bottleneck

An example of two things that reduce genetic variability

humans are the biggest cause of reducing population and inbreeding

The formation of colonies; which only bring the alleles they have; starting a brand new population

founder effect

_____ and _______ are the key to the evolution game.

Survival and Reproduction

a form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates

sexual selection

Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species. For example, humans are slightly dimorphic for body size, with males being taller, on average, than females of the same population.

sexual dimorphism

teology

each structure has a function and reason for being, which is evident from the design in nature

The biological species concept states that two populations are different species if they do not _________ under natural conditions.

interbreed

______ ______ makes interbreeding unlikely.

Reproductive isolation

The biological species concept and reproductive isolation only apply to ______ _______ organisms.

sexual reproducing

Mechanisms that restrict two different species from mating:

biochemical and physically

If two different species do mat, their offspring is called a _____. These organisms are ____.

hybrid;sterile

If 2 different species produce a fertile offspring than they are _____________ but generally unadvantaged.

their own species

New species that have evolved through time

speciation

Speciation always occurs ___________ - meaning only splits in 2 at one time.

dichontomous

major change in a species

macroevolution

allele evolution is also called

microevolution

a single species evolving and changing through time; may appear different but still the same species; not speciation

anagenesis

branching that leads to two different descendants/species

cladogenesis

branches

clades

The pace of evolution is called _____ ______ saying that the change is very gradual.

evolutionary gradualism

not much change occurs but when it does it is a rapid and abrupt change

punctuated equilibrium

complexity argues that:

an organism cannot evolve things to be complex from simple.

irreductable complexity argues:

An organism cannot have evolved from a simpler organism because it cannot function any simpler than it is.

Relates to the changes in timing or pace of development; one way we can see rapid evolutionary change concretely.

heterochromy

how rapid a body part develops or grows; often determined by a single gene

allometric growth

Changes in _________ ________ allows some parts to grow slow and some parts fast.allometric growth

allometric growth

Adults still having juvenile traits or characteristics; determined by natural selection through turning on that timing gene

paedomorphosis

___ ___normal rate of extinction

background rate

individual species or population dies out

extinction

large number of extinction occurs in short amount of time dealing with many different species

mass extinction

time of extinction dinosaur (__-__) large decline
(__-___) mass extinction

K-T
P-T

mass extinction can lead to ___ ___

adaptive radiation

___ a large amount of speciation leading to many new species from a common ancestor

adaptive radiation

a ____ or ___ could cause adaptive radiation

new habitat
speciation increased after dinosaurs became extinct

a third type of adaptive radiation is when __

a new form of a way of doing things changes

___ comes from common ancestor and evolves into man different species. Had to adapt to a new environment

adaptive radiation

three reasons for adaptive radiation

1. brand new location
2. survivors adapt
3. new way of doing things

___ usually follows adaptive radiation

mass extinction

____ is the identification, naming, and classification of species

taxonomy

reconstructing evolutionary history is part of the science of ___

systematics

the study of the diversity and relationships of organisms, both past and present

systematics

Linnaeus's system assigns to each species a two-part latinized name, or ___

binomial

the first part of a binomial is the ___ to which the species belongs

genus

the second part of a binomial refers to one particular ____ (or ____) within the genus

species (specific epithet)

___ is always capitalized

genus

a subspecies adds a third name ____

trinomial

when a species is described it has gone through a ___ and ___

journal
editors

Hierarchical classification

domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species

__- general term used for classification it can be used for any group

taxon

plural of taxon

taxa

why do classification scheme differ?

-new things are discovered; change over time
- changes in order to more show relationships which causes changes in textbooks and grouping
-may change because scientist differ in the relationships therefore classification

the classification system tries to show ____ relationships

evolutionary

ever since Darwin, systematics has had a goal beyond simple organization: to have classification reflect ___, which is the evolutionary history of a species

phylogeny

As a systematist classifies species into groups subordinate to other groups in the taxonomic hierarchy, the final product takes on the branching pattern of a ____ or ___

phylogenetic tree
cladogram

A ___ consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants- a distinctive branch in the tree of life

clade

branching points on cladogram are called

nodes

___- cannot figure out how they are related

unresolved nodes

___- goal is to make all the descendants of a common ancestor (one group contains all descendants of a common ancestor)

monophyletic

___ focuses on the evolutionary innovations that define the branch points in evolution

cladistics

cladistics requires a comparison between a so-called ___ and ___.

in-group
out-group

a ____ character is a homology present in all the organisms being compared and so must also have been present in the common ancestor.

primitive

The ___ character are the evolutionary innovations that define the sequence of branch points (numbered) in the phylogeny of the in-group.

derived

____- even though homologous homologous do not always distinguish classification it can be derived characteristic or primitive characteristic

shared primitive characteristics

shared primitive characteristics has ___

at least one characteristic in common

___- is unique to a monophyletic taxon
- it can be used for specific classification

shared derived characteristics

___ is not useful in classification

homoplasy

____ group should have one shared derived characteristic

monophyletic

viruses are NOT ___

bacteria

agent of disease

pathogen

viruses are examples of ___ because they are NOT cells

infectious particles

A virus is ___ in having genes and a highly organized structure, but it differs from a ____ in not being mad of cells and not being able to reproduce on its own.

lifelike
living organism

viruses are hard to see and have to use ___

scanning electron microscopes

all viruses have at least 2 pars in common:
1. ___
2.a nucleic acid at the core making it either a
a. b. (can't be both)

capsid
DNA viruses
RNA viruses

other things can be present in viruses such as

glycoprotein (carb attached)

A virus has to get to a ___ aka

cell
host cell

The ____ ___ must be put into the cell (DNA/RNA)

nucleic acid

viruses only reproduce while __

in cell

Viruses find a way to make cell make more DNA by ____

replicating viral DNA codes

The __ and ___ of viruses on the cell often cause damage/illness

assembly
exiting

__ are chemicals that affect bacteria

antibiotics

__ are not typically by antibiotics

viruses

because viruses are not typically by antibiotics it makes it difficult to ____

treat but vaccination prevent

viruses cat evolve from cells because ___

they need cells to reproduce

prokaryotes are the ___ and ___

archaea
bacteria

___- a characteristic meaning no nucleus

prokaryotes

archaeans are more closely related to ___ than ___

eukaryans
bacteria

___ are cells so they have a __ __ varying in shapes, have ___, ___

prokaryotes
cell membrane
cytoplasm
DNA

Prokaryotes DNA is not inside a nucleus it is inside a ____ having a single loop of ___ (often called___)

single molecule
DNA
bacterial chromosome

___ do not have ribosomes

prokaryotes

where are the proteins made

ribosomes

Prokaryotes have other things like ___, ___, or ____ to control movement

a cell wall
flagella
sliding

Prokaryotes have __ effect on water movement

scalor

__- a small ring of DNA separate from the chromosome(s).

plasmids

__ have to survive and reproduce

bacteria

bacteria divide into two by ____

binary fission

Bacteria daughter cells have to have ____ of DNA by ___

both sets
replication

Bacteria do not have __ but can exchange DNA

sexual reproduction

Bacteria exchange DNA by

forming a tube which they swap DNA or plasmids

Archaeans are everywhere ___ is

liquid (water)

__ can live where bacteria can't

archaeans

___ like habitats that are extreme and harsh to other organism

etremeophile

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set