There are a range of ages in the population;There are lists of characteristics that apply to populations but do not apply to an ________.
Theory of Evolution
is not a theory whether evolution occurred it addresses how and why evolution occurs.
Explain Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
What one does to change oneself in their lifetime can be passed on to their descendants.
Went around the world to shoot and capture animals and birds to ship to Europe to study. Joined Darwin to publish his book.
done deliberately by humans and selection which would survive and reproduce. Humans choose which organisms will survive and reproduce. Ex. Animal and plant breeding.
Any remnant of past life of distant or very distant past. Can be bones, impressions, teeth, insects, leaf impressions, petrified wood, footprints.
_____body parts are more likely to fossilize than ______ parts/things. Although ____ parts can fossilize.
Hard; softer; soft
To determine the age of a fossil you can look at the level in which its buried in ______ ___.
Homology can also be found at the ________ level by looking at ________ ____ _____ sequence. (DNA)
molecular; amino acid protein
Convergent evolution; similarities not because of common ancestry but because very different organisms of different species look alike because of their environment.
Homoplasy shows evolution through _____ _____ by living a similar way in a similar environment.
Explain continental drift.
Continents are actually moving. Continents have a cycle of coming together and then separating. This explains why marsupials are located in the continents they inhabit. They originated in North America and then spread to South America and Australia before the continents split. The only marsupial left in North America is the opossum.
Evolution occurs in a population when _____ _____ change from one generation to the next.
a change in the DNA sequence and can create new alleles. This causes a change in allele frequency
There is limited movement in sexual reproduction in __________ but genes will move from one population to another and this causes changes in _____ ________.
populations; allele frequencies
is a force in evolution when organisms migrate from one population to another. This can also change allele frequencies.
Chance events that cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next in small populations.
When populations reduce largely; drastically affect the population and decreases the genetic variability.
An example of two things that reduce genetic variability
humans are the biggest cause of reducing population and inbreeding
The formation of colonies; which only bring the alleles they have; starting a brand new population
a form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates
Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species. For example, humans are slightly dimorphic for body size, with males being taller, on average, than females of the same population.
each structure has a function and reason for being, which is evident from the design in nature
The biological species concept states that two populations are different species if they do not _________ under natural conditions.
The biological species concept and reproductive isolation only apply to ______ _______ organisms.
If two different species do mat, their offspring is called a _____. These organisms are ____.
If 2 different species produce a fertile offspring than they are _____________ but generally unadvantaged.
their own species
a single species evolving and changing through time; may appear different but still the same species; not speciation
The pace of evolution is called _____ ______ saying that the change is very gradual.
irreductable complexity argues:
An organism cannot have evolved from a simpler organism because it cannot function any simpler than it is.
Relates to the changes in timing or pace of development; one way we can see rapid evolutionary change concretely.
Changes in _________ ________ allows some parts to grow slow and some parts fast.allometric growth
Adults still having juvenile traits or characteristics; determined by natural selection through turning on that timing gene
large number of extinction occurs in short amount of time dealing with many different species
___ a large amount of speciation leading to many new species from a common ancestor
a ____ or ___ could cause adaptive radiation
speciation increased after dinosaurs became extinct
___ comes from common ancestor and evolves into man different species. Had to adapt to a new environment
three reasons for adaptive radiation
1. brand new location
2. survivors adapt
3. new way of doing things
the second part of a binomial refers to one particular ____ (or ____) within the genus
species (specific epithet)
why do classification scheme differ?
-new things are discovered; change over time
- changes in order to more show relationships which causes changes in textbooks and grouping
-may change because scientist differ in the relationships therefore classification
ever since Darwin, systematics has had a goal beyond simple organization: to have classification reflect ___, which is the evolutionary history of a species
As a systematist classifies species into groups subordinate to other groups in the taxonomic hierarchy, the final product takes on the branching pattern of a ____ or ___
A ___ consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants- a distinctive branch in the tree of life
___- goal is to make all the descendants of a common ancestor (one group contains all descendants of a common ancestor)
a ____ character is a homology present in all the organisms being compared and so must also have been present in the common ancestor.
The ___ character are the evolutionary innovations that define the sequence of branch points (numbered) in the phylogeny of the in-group.
____- even though homologous homologous do not always distinguish classification it can be derived characteristic or primitive characteristic
shared primitive characteristics
___- is unique to a monophyletic taxon
- it can be used for specific classification
shared derived characteristics
A virus is ___ in having genes and a highly organized structure, but it differs from a ____ in not being mad of cells and not being able to reproduce on its own.
all viruses have at least 2 pars in common:
2.a nucleic acid at the core making it either a
a. b. (can't be both)
because viruses are not typically by antibiotics it makes it difficult to ____
treat but vaccination prevent
___ are cells so they have a __ __ varying in shapes, have ___, ___
Prokaryotes DNA is not inside a nucleus it is inside a ____ having a single loop of ___ (often called___)
Prokaryotes have other things like ___, ___, or ____ to control movement
a cell wall