Biology 31: Fungi

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absorption

fungi are heterotrophs that acquire their nutrients by

exoenzymes

powerful hydrolytic molecules secreted by fungus that digest food outside its body

saprobic

____ fungi absorb nutrients from nonliving organisms

parasitic

_____ fungi absorb nutrients from the cells of living hosts

mutualistic

_____ fungi absorb nutrients from a host, but they reciprocate with function that benefits their partner

hyphae

the tiny filaments that make up the vegetative bodies of most fungi

mycelium

a mat of interwoven hyphae

chitin

fungal hyphae have cell walls that are made up mainly of ____, a strong but flexible nitro-gen containing polysaccharide

septa

cross walls that divide hyphae of fungi into multiple cells

coenocytic

_____ fungi consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass with hundreds of nuclei

karyogamy

fusion of haploid nuclei contributed by two parents

plasmogamy

cytoplasmic fusion of two parent cells

haustoria

parasitic fungi have modified hyphae that are nutrient absorbing and penetrate tissues of their host

chytrids

origin of fungi, aquatic, some saprobes, chitinous cell walls, flagellated zoospores

zygomycetes

terrestrial fungi, both asexual and sexual, hyphae are coenocytic

ascomycota

sac fungi that produce sexual spores, yeast to morels, variety of habitats

mycorrhizae

mutualistic associations of fungi with roots of plants, greatly increase absorptive surface of plant roots

basidiomycetes

club fungi have long-lived dikaryotic mycelia, transient diploid stage, decomposers of lignin, rusts and smuts destructive

lichens

symbiotic association of photosynthetic organisms in a mesh of fungal hyphae

glomeromycetes

fungi that form mychorrhizae

ethylene

plant hormone that causes fruit to ripen and stimulates fungal spores to germinate

mycosis

general term for a fungal infection, such as ringworm

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