World Religions Exam. 1

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World's Religions Exam. Ch.1,2,3

In religious studies, the word "myth" means

a story that is meaningful and may be either historically true or not.

Indigenous means

native

A libation

the pouring of a liquid on the ground as an offering.

The orientation that stresses contact with the sacred by proper belief and by adherence to moral rules.

prophetic

Religions that emphasize a creation and a history that is limited and unrepeatable conceive time as

linear.

Religions that believe the universe simply moves through endless changes that often repeat themselves conceive time as

cyclical.

Divination is employed to

read the past or look into the future.

The female divine is sometimes symbolized by

eggs and spirals.

This common approach to religion stresses following reason rather than religious authority and tries to fit answers into a systematic whole.

philosophy

Dancers often wear masks

in order to become the spirit represented by the mask

The Calumet is a

pipe

Agnosticism

is the position that holds that the existence of God cannot be proven.

To believe that nature is full of spirits implies that

human beings must treat all things with care.

What animal is treated with special devotion and care by Hindus?

cow

The modern Indian who used nonviolent means to help lead India to independence in 1947 was

Mohandas Gandhi

The Hindu law of moral cause-and -effect is called the law of

Karma

A place where one can sometimes escape punishment is

a sanctuary

The Hindu elephant-headed god who symbolizes abundance and is considered the "remover of obstacles" is

Ganesha

The Hindu belief that everything living goes through cycles, where it loses one form and is reborn into another is called

Reincarnation

In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna counsels Arjuna to

go to war.

Hinduism as formulated in the Upanishads

encourages meditation to understand the essence of reality.

The most complicated of the Hindu gods is

Shiva.

The power of a god is often symbolized with

many arms.

Respect is shown to gurus through

touching their feet.

What are the 4 stages of life?

Student (brahmacharin), householder (grihastha), retiree (vanaprastha), renunciate (Sannyasin:wandering holy man).

What is the name of the sacred rever that Hindus consider a goddess

Ganges

mantra

is a short sacred phrase, often chanted or used in meditation.

Samadhi

is a state of complete inner peace resulting from meditation.

Dhyana

means meditation or the experience of the mind focused only on the object of concentration.

Upanishads

are written meditations on the spiritual essence of the universe and the self.

Trimurti

means 'three forms' of the divine; the three gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.

Vishnu

is a god associated with preservation and love.

sannyasin

is a wandering holy man.

A "Brahmin"

is a member of the priestly caste in Hinduism.

Hinduism is the primary religion of what country?

India

What are the 4 basic sacred (books of Hinduism) text collections that constitute the Vedas?

1. Rig Veda 2. Yajur Veda 3. Sama Veda 4. Atharva Veda.

Explain Brahman.

The spiritual essence of the universe

What is Maya?

Illusion what keeps us from seeing reality correctly.

What is Samsara?

everyday world of change and suffering leading to rebirth. Cycle of life

What is moksha?

freedom" or "liberation"

What is the Bhagavad Gita?

religious literary work about Krishna. Poem called Mahabharata.

What is the caste system?

It is a system of social stratification and social restriction in India.

List the 5 main social classes in the caste system.

The priest (Brahmin)counselor, The warrior - noble (kshatriya) protecting society,The merchant (vaishya)land owner "twice-born", The peasant (shudra)servants " once-born" , The untouchable (dalit) dirty work cleaning toilets

What does "yoga" mean and why is it important in Hinduism?

Yoga mean "union" suggest roads to perfection, they are also called margas (paths)

List the 3 gods in the Trimurti & describe each.

1.Brahma God of creation.
2.Vishnu a god associated with preservation and love.
3.Shiva a god associated with destruction and rebirth or destroyer.

What animal represents the god Ganesha? What does this god symbolize?

The elephant-headed god Ganesha, son of Shiva, is believed to help devotees overcome obstacles. People often pause before depictions of Ganesha to ask for success.

What animal represents the god Hanuman?

a monkey god

The Divine Feminine is manifested in what goddesses?

Devi or the divine

What is a guru?

A spiritual teacher

What animal receives special veneration in Hinduism?

the cow is special veneration in Hinduism. It serves as a symbol of purity, motherhood and ahimsa (non-violence).

Who was Mohandas Gandhi?

An Indian lawyer by trade, that advocated non-violence led salt and passive resistance in many ways. MLK Jr. used him has a model for advocating the Civil Rights Movement. Gandhi helped rid the caste system and the dowry system. He believed that the presence of God was in all human beings. He also believed that discrimination was evil. Gandhi was assassinated in 1948.

Why are Hindus vegetarians?

Hindus believe that all living things have souls, and the law of Karma reincarnation, they believe they can be an animal in their next life. so almost all Hindus are vegetarians. A vegetarian does not eat meat. which means they will not eat any animal products, including eggs and cheese. Other Hindus will eat poultry and fish, but will not eat beef. And cows are particularly sacred to Hindus.

Explain the concept of "gods" within indigenous religions.

God who is superior to all other deities and is considered to be wise, ancient, and benevolent.

Divine attribute, present and operating in the cosmos but not existing apart from it.

Immanence

Divine attribute, existing above and independently of the material world.

Transcendence

Organic, integrated, indicating a complete system greater than the sum of its parts.

Holistic

A human being who contacts & attempts to manipulate the power of spirits for tribe or group

Shaman

A strong social prohibition ( tabu, kapu)

Taboo

An animal (or image of an animal) that is considered to be related by blood to a family or clan and is its guardian or symbol.

Totem

One of the major social classes sanctioned by Hinduism

caste

The spiritual discipline of knowledge and insight

jnana yoga

a spiritual discipline" a method for perfecting one's union with the divine

yoga

Cremation

Ceremony for the dead

A foretelling of the future or a look into the past; a discovery of the unknown by magical means

Divination

An earthly embodiment of a deity

Avatar

God of creation

Brahma

Incarnation

The embodiment of a deity or spirit in some earthly form.

Three basic orientations in their conceptions and location of the sacred:

Sacramental, prophetic, and mystical.

Brahmin

The priest - counselor

kshatriya

The warrior - noble protecting society

vaishya

The merchant - land owner "twice-born"

shudra

The peasant servants " once-born"

dalit

The untouchable - dirty work cleaning toilets

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