Rhetorical devices 1-20

20 terms by jessica_l

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alliteration

figure of emphasis that occurs through the repetition of initial consonant letters (or sounds) in two or more different words across successive sentences, clauses, or phrases

ex: Have you forgotten you're facing the single finest fighting force ever assembled?

anaphora

figure of repetition that occurs when the first word or set of words in one sentence, clause, or phrase is/are repeated at or very near the beginning of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases

ex: To raise a happy, healthy, and hopeful child, it takes a family; it takes teachers; it takes clergy; it takes business people....blahblah

aposiopesis

figure in which the speaker abruptly stops or falls short of completing a statement; stopping short of completing a statement

ex: "This is most unnerving, Captain. The reason for having two missile keys is so that no one man may --"
"May what?"

catachresis

figure of association in which a highly unusual or outlandish comparison is made between two things. This figure moves beyond a metaphor by degrees -- the language used for comparative purposes is strikingly at odds with conventional usage

ex: "You are a nuclear meltdown, you better cool off."
"The president's decision to develop a hydrogen bomb has placed us on the knife edge of history."
"...showing off like the greedy songbird she was."

distinctio

figure of explication in which an introductory reference to a word's meaning is made (e.g., "by x I mean", "which is to say that", "that is") followed by a further elaboration of that word's meaning; explicit definition of or elaboration upon the meaning or meanings of a particular word or set of words

ex: "I've been in football all my life, really, and I want to say this -- that it's a great game, and it's a Spartan type of game. I mean by that it takes Spartan qualities in order to be a part of it, to play it. And I speak of the Spartan qualities of sacrifice and self-denial...blahblah"

allusion

figure of explication using a brief or casual reference to a famous person, historical event, place, or work of art. It is important to stress that the referent of an allusion be generally well-known. Sources include history, myth, and the Bible

ex: And I can pledge our nation to a goal: When we see that wounded traveler on the road to Jericho, we will not pass to the other side. (from the Bible)

anesis

a figure of addition that occurs when a concluding sentence, clause, or phrase is added to a statement which purposely diminishes the effect of what has been previously stated

ex: "Now Naaman, captain of the host of the king of Syria, was a great man with his master, and honorable, because by him the LORD had given deliverance unto Syria: he was also a mighty man in valor, but he was a leper" -Bible

"Maybe, I didn't go for my father. Maybe, what I really wanted was to prove I could do things right, so when I looked in the mirror I'd see someone worthwhile. But I was wrong. I see nothing" -Mulan

appositio

figure of addition in which words are placed side by side (in apposition to) each other with one word describing or clarifying the other; adjacent nouns or noun substitutes with one elaborating the other

ex: I, Darth Vader, am your father.

In the state of Massachusetts, the cradle of liberty and abolitionism, blahblah...

so, pretty much, they're descriptive phrases separated by commas

climax

figure of repetition in which words or phrases or sentences are arranged in order of increasing intensity or importance, often in parallel construction

ex: And from the crew of Apollo 8, we close with good night, good luck, a merry Christmas, and God bless all of you, all of you on the good earth

Oh, America didn't need repeal, she needed repentance; she didn't need rum, she needed righteousness; we don't need jags, we need Jesus; we don't need more grog, we need more of God

enthymeme

a figure of reasoning in which one or more statements of a syllogism (a three-pronged deductive argument) is/are left out of the configuration; an abbreviated syllogism or truncated deductive argument in which one or more premises, or, the conclusion is/are omitted

so, it follows something like this:
-All humans are mortal. (major premise)
-Michael is human. (minor premise)
-Michael is mortal. (conclusion)

ex: I wanted to serve as President because I love this country and because I love the people of this Nation.
-Those who love [America} and love her people want to serve as President. (major premise)
- I love this country and its people. (minor premise)
-I want(ed) to serve as President. (conclusion)

anadiplosis

figure of repetition that occurs when the last word or terms in one sentence, clause, or phrase is/are repeated at or very near the beginning of the next sentence, clause, or phrase

ex: "My father was very sure about certain matters pertaining to the universe. To him all good things -- trout as well as eternal salvation --come by grace and grace comes by art and art does not come easy"
--direcTV commercial

antimetabole

figure of emphasis in which the words in one phrase or clause are replicated, exactly or closely, in reverse grammatical order in the next phrase or clause; an inverted order of repeated words in adjacent phrases or clauses (A-B, B-A)

ex: The absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence

assonance

figure of repetition in which different words with the same or similar vowel sounds occur successively in words with different consonants

ex: When Jesus told his disciples to pray for the kingdom, this was no pie in the sky by and by when you die kind of prayer

conduplicatio

figure of repetition in which the key word or words in one phrase, clause, or sentence is/are repeated at or very near the beginning of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases

ex: Drugs don't just destroy their victims; they destroy entire families, schools, and communities

I could list the problems which cause people to feel cynical, problems which include blahblah...

enumeratio

figure of amplification in which a subject is divided into constituent parts or details, and may include a listing of causes, effects, problems, solutions, conditions, and consequences

ex: Much will be said about my father the man, the storyteller, the lover of costume parties, a practical joker, the accomplished painter. He was a lover of everything French: cheese, wine, and women. He was a mountain climber, navigator, blahhhhhblah...

But, I think that any ontological history of our selves has to analyze three sets of relations: our relations to truth; our relations to obligations; our relations to ourselves and to the others.

Who's gonna turn down a Junior Mint? It's chocolate; it's peppermint; it's delicious.

analogy

a kind of extended metaphor or long simile in which an explicit comparison is made between two things (events, ideas, people, etc.) for the purpose of furthering a line of reasoning or drawing an inference

ex: Withdrawal of U.S. troops will become like salted peanuts to the American public; the more U.S. troops come home, the more will be demanded

antithesis

figure of balance in which two contrasting ideas are intentionally juxtaposed, usually through parallel structure

ex: I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will {not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.}

That's one small step for man; one giant leap for mankind.

The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.

asyndeton

figure of omission in which normally occurring conjunctions (and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet) are intentionally omitted in successive phrases, or clauses

ex: We use words like honor, code, loyalty...

That we were challenging and overcoming injustice, that we were empowering the least educated among us, the poorest among us...

diacope

figure of repetition in the same word or phrase occurs on either side of an intervening word or phrase; word/phrase x, ..., word/phrase x

ex: The people everywhere, not just here in Britain, everywhere -- they kept faith with Princess Diana.

Patience, lago, patience.

And we read, incredible as it seems, we read of survivors struggling in the water...

epanalepsis

figure of emphasis in which the same word or words both begin(s) and end(s) a phrase, clause, or sentence; beginning and ending a phrase or clause with the same word or words.

ex: It's enough -- enough to go to cemeteries, enough to weep for oceans -- it's enough.

A minimum wage that is not a livable wage can never be a minimum wage.

Justice -- that's all I ask -- justice.

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